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Shih-Shan Lang, Omaditya Khanna, Natalie J. Atkin, Judy E. Palma, Ian Yuan, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Benjamin Kennedy, Angela J. Waanders, Yimei Li, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

The lack of a continuous, noninvasive modality for monitoring intracranial pressure (ICP) is a major obstacle in the care of pediatric patients with hydrocephalus who are at risk for intracranial hypertension. Intracranial hypertension can lead to cerebral ischemia and brain tissue hypoxia. In this study, the authors evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) in symptomatic pediatric patients with hydrocephalus concerning for elevated ICP.

METHODS

The authors evaluated the NIRS rSO2 trends in pediatric patients presenting with acute hydrocephalus and clinical symptoms of intracranial hypertension. NIRS rSO2 values were recorded hourly before and after neurosurgical intervention. To test for significance between preoperative and postoperative values, the authors constructed a linear regression model with the rSO2 values as the outcome and pre- and postsurgery cohorts as the independent variable, adjusted for age and sex, and used the generalized estimating equation method to account for within-subject correlation.

RESULTS

Twenty-two pediatric patients underwent NIRS rSO2 monitoring before and after CSF diversion surgery. The mean durations of NIRS rSO2 recording pre- and postoperatively were 13.95 and 26.82 hours, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative rSO2 values were 73.84% and 80.65%, respectively, and the adjusted mean difference estimated from the regression model was 5.98% (adjusted p < 0.0001), suggestive of improved cerebral oxygenation after definitive neurosurgical CSF diversion treatment. Postoperatively, all patients returned to baseline neurological status with no clinical symptoms of elevated ICP.

CONCLUSIONS

Cerebral oxygenation trends measured by NIRS in symptomatic pediatric hydrocephalus patients with intracranial hypertension generally improve after CSF diversion surgery.

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Franz E. Babl, Mark D. Lyttle, Natalie Phillips, Amit Kochar, Sarah Dalton, John A. Cheek, Jeremy Furyk, Jocelyn Neutze, Silvia Bressan, Amanda Williams, Stephen J. C. Hearps, MBiostat, Ed Oakley, Gavin A. Davis, Stuart R. Dalziel, and Meredith L. Borland

OBJECTIVE

Current clinical decision rules (CDRs) guiding the use of CT scanning in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) assessment generally exclude children with ventricular shunts (VSs). There is limited evidence as to the risk of abnormalities found on CT scans or clinically important TBI (ciTBI) in this population. The authors sought to determine the frequency of these outcomes and the presence of CDR predictor variables in children with VSs.

METHODS

The authors undertook a planned secondary analysis on children with VSs included in a prospective external validation of 3 CDRs for TBI in children presenting to 10 emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand. They analyzed differences in presenting features, management and acute outcomes (TBI on CT and ciTBI) between groups with and without VSs, and assessed the presence of CDR predictors in children with a VS.

RESULTS

A total of 35 of 20,137 children (0.2%) with TBI had a VS; only 2 had a Glasgow Coma Scale score < 15. Overall, 49% of patients with a VS underwent CT scanning compared with 10% of those without a VS. One patient had a finding of TBI on CT scanning, with positive predictor variables on CDRs. This patient had a ciTBI. No patient required neurosurgery. For children with and without a VS, the frequency of ciTBI was 2.9% (95% CI 0.1%–14.9%) compared with 1.4% (95% CI 1.2%–1.6%) (difference 1.5% [95% CI −4.0% to 7.0%]), and TBI on CT 2.9% (95% CI 0.1%–14.9%) compared with 2.0% (95% CI 1.8%–2.2%) (difference 0.9%, 95% CI −4.6% to 6.4%).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ data provide further support that the risk of TBI is similar for children with and without a VS.