Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is rare and potentially life-threatening disease often presenting as vascular myelopathy. The early and proper diagnosis is challenging because the clinical manifestations are related to the distribution of the draining vein, not the fistula site, and imaging findings are similar to demyelinating disease of the spinal cord. The authors present the case of a 45-year-old man who developed acute progressive quadriplegia and respiratory difficulty with an enhancing, longitudinally extensive cervical cord lesion. These symptoms were highly suspicious for transverse myelitis but were caused by an intracranial DAVF. Intracranial DAVF with venous reflux to the brainstem and spinal cord is a rare but important differential diagnosis of progressive worsening myelopathy that is treatment resistant and gives the diagnostic impression of transverse myelitis.
Nam-Hee Kim, Keun-Tae Cho and Hyung Suk Seo
Roberto C. Heros
Taek-Kyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Young-Jo Jung, Yong-Seok Im, Hee-Ye An, Do-Hyun Nam, Kwan Park and Jong-Hyun Kim
Object. This study was performed to evaluate the role of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in patients with a large number (four or more) of metastatic brain lesions.
Methods. The authors retrospectively reviewed the outcome in 130 patients who underwent GKS for metastatic lesions. Eighty-four patients presented with one to three lesions (Group A) and 46 presented with four or more lesions (Group B). The overall median survival time after GKS was 35 weeks. The median survival time in Group A (48 weeks) was significantly longer (p = 0.005) than the survival time in Group B (26 weeks). The recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class was the only significant prognostic factor identified in multivariate analysis. The median survival for patients in RPA Classes I, II, and III was 72, 48, and 19 weeks, respectively, in Group A and 36 and 13 weeks for Classes II and III in Group B. The number of lesions, tumor volume, whole brain radiotherapy, primary tumor site, age, and sex did not affect survival significantly.
Conclusions. It is suggested that GKS provides an increase in survival time even in patients with a large number (four or more) of metastatic lesions. Concerning the selection of patients for GKS, RPA class should be considered as the most important factor and multiplicity of the lesions alone should not be a reason for withholding GKS.
Jae Hyo Park, Seung-Yeob Yang, You-Nam Chung, Jeong Eun Kim, Seung-Ki Kim, Dae Hee Han and Byung-Kyu Cho
✓The authors describe a modified technique of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) with bifrontal encephalogaleoperiosteal synangiosis (EGPS) and present the preliminary results of the procedure. Between January 2004 and June 2005 the authors performed modified EDAS with bifrontal EGPS in 17 patients with moyamoya disease. Surgical results were evaluated in terms of clinical outcomes, changes visible on neuroimages, extent of revascularization noted on angiograms, and hemodynamic changes demonstrated on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 21 months (mean 11.5 months). The overall clinical outcomes were excellent or good in 15 patients (88.2%) and poor in two (11.8%). The overall morbidity rate was 5.9% (one of 17 patients). Based on changes in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories after surgery, as shown on SPECT scans following administration of acetazolamide, 14 patients (82.4%) exhibited an improved vascular reserve capacity in both the ACA and MCA territories. It is the authors' opinion that wide covering of the cortex is necessary for sufficient revascularization. In the present study they demonstrate that modified EDAS with bifrontal EGPS is a safe and efficient surgical approach that covers not only the MCA territory but also the ACA territory.
Yong Hwy Kim, Chiman Jeon, Young-Bem Se, Sang Duk Hong, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-II Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Doo Hee Han, Do-Hyun Nam and Doo-Sik Kong
The endoscopic endonasal approach for treating primary skull base malignancies involving the clivus is a formidable task. The authors hypothesized that tumor involvement of nearby critical anatomical structures creates hurdles to endoscopic gross-total resection (GTR). The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach to treat primary malignancies involving the clivus and to analyze prognostic factors for GTR.
Between January 2009 and November 2015, 42 patients underwent the endoscopic endonasal approach for resection of primary skull base malignancies involving the clivus at 2 independent institutions. Clinical data; tumor locations within the clivus; and anatomical involvement of the cavernous or paraclival internal carotid artery, cisternal trigeminal nerve, hypoglossal canal, and dura mater were investigated to assess the extent of resection. Possible prognostic factors affecting GTR were also analyzed.
Of the 42 patients, 37 were diagnosed with chordomas and 5 were diagnosed with chondrosarcomas. The mean (± SD) preoperative tumor volume was 25.2 ± 30.5 cm3 (range 0.8–166.7 cm3). GTR was achieved in 28 patients (66.7%) and subtotal resection in 14 patients (33.3%). All tumors were classified as upper (n = 17), middle (n = 17), or lower (n = 8) clival tumors based on clival involvement, and as central (24 [57.1%]) or paramedian (18 [42.9%]) based on laterality of the tumor. Univariate analysis identified the tumor laterality (OR 6.25, 95% CI 1.51–25.86; p = 0.011) as significantly predictive of GTR. In addition, the laterality of the tumor was found to be a statistically significant predictor in multivariate analysis (OR 41.16, 95% CI 1.12–1512.65; p = 0.043).
An endoscopic endonasal approach can provide favorable clinical and surgical outcomes. However, the tumor laterality should be considered as a potential obstacle to total removal.
Heon Yoo, Young Zoon Kim, Byung Ho Nam, Sang Hoon Shin, Hee Seok Yang, Jin Soo Lee, Jae Il Zo and Seung Hoon Lee
The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic impact of the resection of metastatic brain tumor cells infiltrating adjacent brain parenchyma.
Between July 2001 and February 2007, 94 patients (67 males and 27 females, with a mean age of 55.0 ±12.0 years) underwent resection of a single brain metastasis, followed by systemic chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. In 43 patients with tumors located in noneloquent areas, the authors performed microscopic total resections (MTRs) that included tumor cells infiltrating adjacent brain parenchyma, and they pathologically confirmed during surgery that the resection margins were free of tumor cells (MTR group). In 51 patients with lesions in eloquent locations, gross-total resections (GTRs) were performed without the removal of neighboring brain parenchyma (GTR group). The 2 groups were then compared for local recurrence and survival.
The MTR group had better local control of the tumor than did the GTR group; 10 (23.3%) of 43 patients in the MTR group and 22 (43.1%) of 51 patients in the GTR group had a local recurrence (p = 0.04). The median time to tumor progression in the MTR group could not be calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, whereas it was 11.4 months in the GTR group. The 1- and 2-year respective local recurrence rates were 29.1 and 29.1% in the MTR group and 58.6 and 63.2% in the GTR group (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the MTR procedure was associated with a decreased risk of local recurrence (p = 0.003). A Cox regression analysis revealed that the hazard ratio for a local recurrence in the MTR group versus the GTR group was 3.14 (95% CI 1.47–6.72, p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the local recurrence rate between the MTR group without radiotherapy (10 [30.3%] of 33) and the GTR group with postoperative radiotherapy (5 [26.3%] of 19).
The results in this study suggest that MTRs including tumor cells infiltrating adjacent brain parenchyma for a single brain metastasis provide better local tumor control.