The revascularization technique, including bypass created using the external carotid artery (ECA), radial artery (RA), and M2 portion of middle cerebral artery (MCA), has remained indispensable for treatment of complex aneurysms. To date, it remains unknown whether diameters of the RA, superficial temporal artery (STA), and C2 portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and intraoperative MCA blood pressure have influences on the outcome and the symptomatic watershed infarction (WI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors for the symptomatic WI and neurological worsening in patients treated by ECA-RA-M2 bypass for complex ICA aneurysm with therapeutic ICA occlusion.
The authors measured the sizes of vessels (RA, C2, M2, and STA) and intraoperative MCA blood pressure (initial, after ICA occlusion, and after releasing the RA graft bypass) in 37 patients. Symptomatic WI was defined as presence of the following: postoperative new neurological deficits, WI on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging, and ipsilateral cerebral blood flow reduction on SPECT. Neurological worsening was defined as the increase in 1 or more modified Rankin Scale scores. First, the authors performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for continuous variables and the binary end point of the symptomatic WI. The clinical, radiological, and physiological characteristics of patients with and without the symptomatic WI were compared using the log-rank test. Then, the authors compared the variables between patients with and without neurological worsening at discharge and at the 12-month follow-up examination or last hospital visit.
Symptomatic WI was observed in 2 (5.4%) patients. The mean MCA pressure after releasing the RA graft (< 55 mm Hg; p = 0.017), mean (MCA pressure after releasing the RA graft)/(initial MCA pressure) (< 0.70 mm Hg; p = 0.032), and mean cross-sectional area ratio ([RA/C2 diameter]2 < 0.40 mm [p < 0.0001] and [STA/C2 diameter]2 < 0.044 mm [p < 0.0001]) were related to the symptomatic WI. All preoperatively independent patients remained independent (modified Rankin Scale score < 3). After adjusting for age and sex, left operative side (p = 0.0090 and 0.038) and perforating artery ischemia (p = 0.0050 and 0.022) were related to neurological worsening at discharge (11 [29%] patients) and at the 12-month follow-up or last hospital visit (8 [22%] patients).
Results of the present study showed that the vessel diameter and intraoperative MCA pressure had impacts on the symptomatic WI and that operative side and perforating artery ischemia were related to neurological worsening in patients with complex ICA aneurysms treated by ECA-RA-M2 bypass.