Weijun Wang, Hee-Yeon Cho, Rachel Rosenstein-Sisson, Nagore I. Marín Ramos, Ryan Price, Kyle Hurth, Axel H. Schönthal, Florence M. Hofman and Thomas C. Chen
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and the most aggressive of primary brain tumors. There is currently no effective treatment for this tumor. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is effective for a variety of tumors, but not for GBM. The authors' goal was to demonstrate that bortezomib can be effective in the orthotopic GBM murine model if the appropriate method of drug delivery is used. In this study the Alzet mini-osmotic pump was used to bring the drug directly to the tumor in the brain, circumventing the blood-brain barrier; thus making bortezomib an effective treatment for GBM.
The 2 human glioma cell lines, U87 and U251, were labeled with luciferase and used in the subcutaneous and intracranial in vivo tumor models. Glioma cells were implanted subcutaneously into the right flank, or intracranially into the frontal cortex of athymic nude mice. Mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors were implanted with an Alzet mini-osmotic pump containing different doses of bortezomib. The Alzet pumps were introduced directly into the tumor bed in the brain. Survival was documented for mice with intracranial tumors.
Glioma cells were sensitive to bortezomib at nanomolar quantities in vitro. In the subcutaneous in vivo xenograft tumor model, bortezomib given intravenously was effective in reducing tumor progression. However, in the intracranial glioma model, bortezomib given systemically did not affect survival. By sharp contrast, animals treated with bortezomib intracranially at the tumor site exhibited significantly increased survival.
Bypassing the blood-brain barrier by using the osmotic pump resulted in an increase in the efficacy of bortezomib for the treatment of intracranial tumors. Thus, the intratumoral administration of bortezomib into the cranial cavity is an effective approach for glioma therapy.
Nagore I. Marín-Ramos, Marta Pérez-Hernández, Anson Tam, Stephen D. Swenson, Hee-Yeon Cho, Thu Zan Thein, Florence M. Hofman and Thomas C. Chen
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor with a high rate of tumor recurrence, and it often develops resistance over time to current standard of care chemotherapy. Its highly invasive nature plays an essential role in tumor progression and recurrence. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are a subpopulation of glioma cells highly resistant to treatments and are considered responsible for tumor recurrence.
Patient-derived populations of GSCs were analyzed by western blot, MTT, and cytoplasmic calcium labeling to determine the cytotoxicity of NEO100. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to evaluate the levels of NEO100 in the cell culture supernatants. The effects of the compound on GSC motility were studied using Boyden chamber migration, 3D spheroid migration and invasion assays, and an mRNA expression PCR array. A RhoA activation assay, western blot, and immunofluorescence techniques were employed to confirm the signaling pathways involved. Intracranial implantation of GSCs in athymic mice was used to evaluate the effects of NEO100 in vivo on tumor progression and overall survival.
Here, the authors show how NEO100, a highly purified guanosine monophosphate–quality form of perillyl alcohol, is cytotoxic for different subtypes of GSCs, regardless of the mechanisms of DNA repair present. At doses similar to the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values, NEO100 induces ER stress and activates apoptotic pathways in all GSC populations tested. At subcytotoxic doses in the micromolar range, NEO100 blocks migration and invasion of GSCs. These results correlate with a decrease in calpain-1 expression and an increase in RhoA activation, leading to enhanced contractility of the GSCs. In addition, NEO100 blocks the activation of the kinases Src, p42/44 MAPK, Akt, and Stat3, all related to cell proliferation and migration. Intranasal administration of NEO100 in mice with GSC-derived intracranial tumors led to a decrease in tumor progression and a 32% increase in overall survival. Immunostaining studies showed that NEO100 induces apoptosis and reduces GSC invasion in vivo.
NEO100 could have significant value targeting GSCs and could be used for GBM therapy as either monotherapy or a coadjuvant therapy during temozolomide rest cycles.