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Ho-Shin Gwak, Myung-Jin Park, In-Chul Park, Sang Hyeok Woo, Hyeon-Ok Jin, Chang Hun Rhee, and Hee-Won Jung

Object

Local invasiveness of malignant glioma is a major reason for the failure of current treatments including surgery and radiation therapy. Tetraarsenic oxide (As4O6 [TAO]) is a trivalent arsenic compound that has potential anticancer and antiangiogenic effects in selected cancer cell lines at a lower concentration than arsenic trioxide (As2O3 [ATO]), which has been more widely tested in vitro and in vivo. The authors tried to determine the cytotoxic concentration of TAO in malignant glioma cell lines and whether TAO would show anti-invasive effects under conditions independent of cell death or apoptosis.

Methods

The human phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient malignant glioma cell lines U87MG, U251MG, and U373MG together with PTEN-functional LN428 were cultured with a range of micromolar concentrations of TAO. The invasiveness of the glioma cell lines was analyzed. The effect of TAO on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion and membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP expression was measured using gelatin zymography and Western blot, respectively. Akt, or protein kinase B, activity, which is a downstream effector of PTEN, was assessed with a kinase assay using glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β) as a substrate and Western blotting of phosphorylated Akt.

Results

Tetraarsenic oxide inhibited 50% of glioma cell proliferation at 6.3–12.2 μM. Subsequent experiments were performed under the same TAO concentrations and exposure times, avoiding the direct tumoricidal effect of TAO, which was confirmed with apoptosis markers. An invasion assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in invasiveness under the influence of TAO. Both the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression decreased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines, which was in accordance with the invasion assay results. The TAO decreased kinase activity of Akt on GSK-3β assay and inhibited Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines regardless of their PTEN status.

Conclusions

These results showed that TAO effectively inhibits proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines and also exerts an anti-invasive effect via decreased MMP-2 secretion, decreased MT1-MMP expression, and the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation under conditions devoid of cytotoxicity. Further investigations using an in vivo model are needed to evaluate the potential role of TAO as an anti-invasive agent.

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William S. Gibson, Aaron E. Rusheen, Yoonbae Oh, Myung-Ho In, Krzysztof R. Gorny, Joel P. Felmlee, Bryan T. Klassen, Sung Jun Jung, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H. Lee, and Hang Joon Jo

OBJECTIVE

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an established neurosurgical treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). While often highly effective, DBS does not always yield optimal therapeutic outcomes, and stimulation-induced adverse effects, including paresthesia, muscle contractions, and nausea/lightheadedness, commonly occur and can limit the efficacy of stimulation. Currently, objective metrics do not exist for monitoring neural changes associated with stimulation-induced therapeutic and adverse effects.

METHODS

In the present study, the authors combined intraoperative functional MRI (fMRI) with STN DBS in 20 patients with PD to test the hypothesis that stimulation-induced blood oxygen level–dependent signals contained predictive information concerning the therapeutic and adverse effects of stimulation.

RESULTS

As expected, DBS resulted in blood oxygen level–dependent activation in myriad motor regions, including the primary motor cortex, caudate, putamen, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. Across the patients, DBS-induced improvements in contralateral Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale tremor subscores correlated with activation of thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. In addition, improvements in rigidity and bradykinesia subscores correlated with activation of the primary motor cortex. Finally, activation of specific sensorimotor-related subregions correlated with the presence of DBS-induced adverse effects, including paresthesia and nausea (cerebellar cortex, sensorimotor cortex) and unwanted muscle contractions (caudate and putamen).

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that DBS-induced activation patterns revealed by fMRI contain predictive information with respect to the therapeutic and adverse effects of DBS. The use of fMRI in combination with DBS therefore may hold translational potential to guide and improve clinical stimulator optimization in patients.