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Liang Xu, Xu Sun, Muyi Wang, Bo Yang, Changzhi Du, Qingshuang Zhou, Zezhang Zhu, and Yong Qiu


The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of coronal imbalance (CI) in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) who underwent growing rod (GR) treatment.


A consecutive series of 61 patients with EOS (25 boys and 36 girls, mean age 5.8 ± 1.7 years) who underwent GR treatment was retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative CI was defined as postoperative C7 translation on either side ≥ 20 mm. Patients were divided into an imbalanced and a balanced group. Coronal patterns were classified into three types: type A (C7 translation < 20 mm), type B (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm with C7 plumb line [C7PL] shifted to the concave side of the curve), and type C (C7 translation ≥ 20 mm and a C7PL shifted to the convex side of the curve).


Each patient had an average of 5.3 ± 1.0 lengthening procedures and was followed for an average of 6.2 ± 1.3 years. Eleven patients (18%) were diagnosed with CI at the latest distraction, 5 of whom graduated from GRs and underwent definitive fusion. However, these patients continued to present with CI at the last follow-up evaluation. The proportion of preoperative type C pattern (54.5% vs 16.0%, p = 0.018), immediate postoperative apical vertebral translation (30.4 ± 13.5 mm vs 21.2 ± 11.7 mm, p = 0.025), lowest instrumented vertebra tilt (11.4° ± 8.2° vs 7.3° ± 3.3°, p = 0.008), and spanned obliquity angle (SOA) (9.7° ± 10.5° vs 4.1° ± 4.5°, p = 0.006) values in the imbalanced group were significantly higher than in the balanced group. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that a preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were independent risk factors for postoperative CI.


The incidence of CI in patients with EOS who underwent GR treatment was 18%. This complication could only be slightly improved after definitive spinal fusion because of the autofusion phenomenon. A preoperative type C pattern and immediate postoperative SOA > 11° were found to be the risk factors for CI occurrence at the latest follow-up.