Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologists, or even neurosurgeons are familiar with it. In this extensive review, the authors intend to shed light on the current use of HIFU in different neurosurgical avenues and its mechanism of action, as well as provide an update on the outcome of various trials and advances expected from various preclinical studies in the near future. Although the initial technical challenges have been overcome and the technology has been improved, only very few clinical trials have thus far been carried out. The number of clinical trials related to neurological disorders is expected to increase in the coming years, as this novel therapeutic device appears to have a substantial expansive potential. There is great opportunity to expand the use of HIFU across various medical and surgical disciplines for the treatment of different pathologies. As this technology gains recognition, it will open the door for further research opportunities and innovation.
Syed A. Quadri, Muhammad Waqas, Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sajid S. Suriya, Mudassir Farooqui and Brian Fiani
Kunal Vakharia, Stephan A. Munich, Michael K. Tso, Muhammad Waqas and Elad I. Levy
Stent-assisted coiling offers a potential solution for coil embolization of broad-based aneurysms. Challenges associated with navigating a microcatheter beyond these aneurysms sometimes require looping the microcatheter within the aneurysm dome. Reducing microcatheter loops within domes can be difficult, and anchor techniques have been described, including balloon anchor, stent-retriever anchor, and stent anchor techniques. The authors present a patient requiring stent-assisted coiling of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm in whom a stent anchor technique was used to reduce a microcatheter loop within an aneurysm dome before coil embolization. Postembolization angiographic runs showed complete coil occlusion of the aneurysm with approximately 35% packing density.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/zHR1ZOArUro.
Kunal Vakharia, Stephan A. Munich, Muhammad Waqas, Swetadri Vasan Setlur Nagesh and Elad I. Levy
Progressive deconstruction with flow diversion using a Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic) can be utilized to promote thrombosis of broad-based fusiform aneurysms. Current flow diverters require a 0.027-inch microcatheter for deployment. The authors present a patient with a fusiform P2–3 junction posterior cerebral artery aneurysm in which they demonstrate the importance of haptics in microwire manipulation to recognize large-vessel anatomy versus perforator anatomy that may overlap, especially when access is needed in distal tortuous circulations. In addition, the authors demonstrate the need for appropriate visualization before PED deployment. Postembolization runs demonstrated optimal wall apposition with contrast stasis within the aneurysm dome.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/8kfsSvN3XqM.