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Alireza Mansouri, Shervin Taslimi, Aram Abbasian, Jetan H. Badhiwala, Muhammad Ali Akbar, Naif M. Alotaibi, Saleh A. Almenawer, Alexander G. Weil, Aria Fallah, Lionel Carmant and George M. Ibrahim

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to describe the current state of epilepsy surgery and establish estimates of seizure outcomes following surgery for medically intractable epilepsy (MIE) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

METHODS

The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched without publication date restriction. This search was supplemented by a manual screen of key epilepsy and neurosurgical journals (January 2005 to December 2016). Studies that reported outcomes for at least 10 patients of any age undergoing surgery for MIE in LMICs over a defined follow-up period were included. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model was performed in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and MOOSE (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines. Pooled estimates of seizure freedom and favorable seizure outcomes following anterior temporal lobectomy with or without amygdalohippocampectomy (ATL ± AH) were reported.

RESULTS

Twenty studies were selected, of which 16 were from Asian centers. The average age at surgery in all studies was less than 30 years, and the average preoperative duration of epilepsy ranged from 3 to 16.1 years. Mesial temporal sclerosis accounted for 437 of 951 described pathologies, and 1294 of the 1773 procedures were ATL ± AH. Based on 7 studies (646 patients) the pooled seizure freedom estimate following ATL ± AH was 68% (95% CI 55%–82%). Based on 8 studies (1096 patients), the pooled estimate for favorable seizure outcomes was 79% (95% CI 74%–85%).

CONCLUSIONS

Surgery for MIE in LMICs shows a high percentage of seizure freedom and favorable outcomes. These findings call for a concerted global effort to improve timely access to surgery for MIE patients in these regions, including investments aimed at refining existing and establishing additional centers.

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Jetan H. Badhiwala, Sean N. Leung, Yosef Ellenbogen, Muhammad A. Akbar, Allan R. Martin, Fan Jiang, Jamie R. F. Wilson, Farshad Nassiri, Christopher D. Witiw, Jefferson R. Wilson and Michael G. Fehlings

OBJECTIVE

Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in adults. Multilevel ventral compressive pathology is routinely managed through anterior decompression and reconstruction, but there remains uncertainty regarding the relative safety and efficacy of multiple discectomies, multiple corpectomies, or hybrid corpectomy-discectomy. To that end, using a large national administrative healthcare data set, the authors sought to compare the perioperative outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), and hybrid corpectomy-discectomy for multilevel DCM.

METHODS

Patients with a primary diagnosis of DCM who underwent an elective anterior cervical decompression and reconstruction operation over 3 cervical spinal segments were identified from the 2012–2017 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients were separated into those undergoing 3-level discectomy, 2-level corpectomy, or a hybrid procedure (single-level corpectomy plus additional single-level discectomy). Outcomes included 30-day mortality, major complication, reoperation, and readmission, as well as operative duration, length of stay (LOS), and routine discharge home. Outcomes were compared between treatment groups by multivariable regression, adjusting for age and comorbidities (modified Frailty Index). Effect sizes were reported by adjusted odds ratio (aOR) or mean difference (aMD) and associated 95% confidence interval.

RESULTS

The study cohort consisted of 1298 patients; of these, 713 underwent 3-level ACDF, 314 2-level ACCF, and 271 hybrid corpectomy-discectomy. There was no difference in 30-day mortality, reoperation, or readmission among the 3 procedures. However, on both univariate and adjusted analyses, compared to 3-level ACDF, 2-level ACCF was associated with significantly greater risk of major complication (aOR 2.82, p = 0.005), longer hospital LOS (aMD 0.8 days, p = 0.002), and less frequent discharge home (aOR 0.59, p = 0.046). In contrast, hybrid corpectomy-discectomy had comparable outcomes to 3-level ACDF but was associated with significantly shorter operative duration (aMD −16.9 minutes, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found multiple discectomies and hybrid corpectomy-discectomy to have a comparable safety profile in treating multilevel DCM. In contrast, multiple corpectomies were associated with a higher complication rate, longer hospital LOS, and lower likelihood of being discharged directly home from the hospital, and may therefore be a higher-risk operation.