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Eiichi Nakai, Mitsuhiro Takemura, Motonobu Nonaka, Yu Kawanishi, Noritaka Masahira and Tetsuya Ueba

The diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia remains controversial. The primary diagnostic factor relies on confirmation of leakage of the CSF based on reduced spinal fluid pressure. Determining the specific leakage site is the most important issue for effective treatment but remains a difficult task. Although CT myelography, radioisotope cisternography, and MRI are commonly performed in the diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia, these techniques can rarely identify the precise leakage site. Therefore, an epidural blood patch is performed in the lumbar spine in many cases.

This study reports a new diagnostic modality that can help to confirm the leakage site. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted sagittal images were compared before and after the infusion of 20 ml of saline into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to detect the specific leakage site with high probability. Three patients were successfully treated by the epidural blood patch based on data obtained with the new diagnostic modality. Two patients were treated in the cervical region and 1 in the lumbar region. The use of fat-suppressed T2-weighted sagittal images after saline infusion could be a relevant diagnostic modality compared with images obtained by CT myelography, radioisotope cisternography, and ordinary MRI to achieve accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of patients with CSF hypovolemia.

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Hitoshi Fukuda, Hitoshi Ninomiya, Yusuke Ueba, Tsuyoshi Ohta, Toshiaki Kaneko, Tomohito Kadota, Fumihiro Hamada, Naoki Fukui, Motonobu Nonaka, Yuya Watari, Shota Nishimoto, Maki Fukuda, Satoru Hayashi, Tomohiko Izumidani, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Akihito Moriki, Benjamin Lo and Tetsuya Ueba


Several environmental factors have been reported to correlate with incidence of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, because of different patient selection and study designs among these studies, meteorological factors that trigger the incidence of SAH in a short hazard period remain unknown. Among meteorological factors, daily temperature changes may disrupt and violate homeostasis and predispose to cerebrovascular circulatory disturbances and strokes. The authors aimed to investigate whether a decline in the temperature from the highest of the previous day to the lowest of the event day (temperature decline from the previous day [TDP]) triggers SAH in the prefecture-wide stroke database.


All 28 participating institutions with primary or comprehensive stroke centers located throughout Kochi Prefecture, Japan, were included in the study. Data collected between January 2012 and December 2016 were analyzed, and 715 consecutive SAH patients with a defined date of onset were enrolled. Meteorological data in this period were obtained from the Kochi Local Meteorological Observatory. A case-crossover study was performed to investigate association of TDP and other environmental factors with onset of SAH.


The increasing TDP in 1°C on the day of the SAH event was associated with an increased incidence of SAH (OR 1.041, 95% CI 1.007–1.077) after adjustment for other environmental factors. According to the stratified analysis, a significant association between TDP and SAH was observed in women, patients < 65 years old, and patients with weekday onset. Among these factors, increasing TDP had a great impact on SAH onset in patients < 65 years old (p = 0.028, Mann-Whitney U-test).


TDP, temperature decline from the highest of the previous day to the lowest of the day, was correlated with the incidence of spontaneous SAH, particularly in younger patients < 65 years old.