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Gideon Findler, Amiram Aldor, Moshe Hadani, Abraham Sahar and Moshe Feinsod

✓ Children with rare coagulation disorders are at high risk from intracranial bleeding with even minor head injury. Treatment by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma is limited because of the large volumes required for restoring the missing coagulation factor. Furthermore, even when concentrates of such a factor are available, their use may prove ineffective due to circulating specific antibodies. Three patients with rare coagulation disorders are presented who suffered head injury complicated by intracranial hemorrhage.

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Gideon Findler, Moshe Feinsod, Graciela Lijovetzky and Moshe Hadani

✓ A patient in whom transient global amnesia (TGA) led to the diagnosis of a metastasis of a transition-cell carcinoma of the bladder to the non-dominant hemisphere is described. In previously reported cases of TGA associated with brain tumors, the tumors involved either the dominant or both hemispheres. The etiology of TGA associated with a brain tumor is most likely vascular, as suggested by the sudden development and the transitory character of the event. In contrast to the “common” form of TGA (where both temporal lobes suffer temporary ischemia), in these patients only one side of the limbic system is affected, because a brain tumor has already compromised the other limbic area. Therefore, the dominance of the hemisphere with the tumor is of no consequence, as both hemispheres have been involved. It is concluded that the TGA in these patients is not due to, but is rather associated with, a unilateral brain tumor.

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Zvi Ram, Roberto Spiegelman, Gideon Findler and Moshe Hadani

✓ Sodium nitroprusside is commonly used for the induction of hypotension during neurosurgical procedures. Its toxicity stems from hemodynamic compromise as well as from its metabolites, especially the formation of cyanide. A patient is described who underwent craniotomy for hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. He gradually recovered following the operation, but needed continued administration of sodium nitroprusside for control of hypertension. On the 7th postoperative day, he deteriorated into coma with evidence of severe edema and herniation on the computerized tomography scan. Cessation of sodium nitroprusside and treatment for cyanide poisoning resulted in resolution of his symptoms within hours. The potential toxicity of sodium nitroprusside, measures to prevent toxicity, and therapeutic steps are discussed.

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Moshe Hadani, Gideon Findler, Izhak Shared and Abraham Sahar

✓ A case of delayed onset of diabetes insipidus (DI), which developed 27 days after a closed head injury, is reported. The patient sustained only a minor neurological deficit and, except for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) insufficiency, hypothalamic function was intact. This selective damage of posterior pituitary function was total and permanent. Ischemia due to vascular injury may be the most likely etiology. Once the diagnosis of delayed posttraumatic DI is confirmed, the treatment of choice is DDAVP (desmopressin acetate). In contradistinction to DI immediately following minor head injury, most patients with a delayed onset of DI after trauma have permanent ADH deficiency.

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Zvi Ram, Moshe Hadani, Roberto Spiegelman, Rina Tadmor and Itzchack Shacked

✓ Delayed nonhemorrhagic encephalopathy following mild head trauma is a rare condition with an unknown etiology. The few cases reported in the literature are in young adults, all of them in the era before computerized tomography (CT) became available, and all had a devastating clinical course with multifocal ischemia or necrotic lesions found at autopsy. A case is presented of a young man with this syndrome who survived the acute encephalopathic phase with severe residual neurological deficits. Repeat CT scans during and following the acute phase as well as magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse multifocal lesions compatible with ischemic changes and demyelination in the “watershed” areas of the brain.

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Oded Goren, Stephen J. Monteith, Moshe Hadani, Mati Bakon and Sagi Harnof

This paper reviews the current intraoperative imaging tools that are available to assist neurosurgeons in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This review shares the authors' experience with each modality and discusses the advantages, potential limitations, and disadvantages of each.

Surgery for ICH is directed at blood clot removal, reduction of intracranial pressure, and minimization of secondary damage associated with hematoma breakdown products. For effective occlusion and safe obliteration of vascular anomalies associated with ICH, vascular neurosurgeons today require a thorough understanding of the various intraoperative imaging modalities available for obtaining real-time information. Use of one or more of these modalities may improve the surgeon's confidence during the procedure, the patient's safety during surgery, and surgical outcome.

The modern techniques discussed include 1) indocyanine green–based video angiography, which provides real-time information based on high-quality images showing the residual filling of vascular pathological entities and the patency of blood vessels of any size in the surgical field; and 2) intraoperative angiography, which remains the gold standard intraoperative diagnostic test in the surgical management of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Hybrid procedures, providing multimodality image-guided surgeries and combining endovascular with microsurgical strategies within the same surgical session, have become feasible and safe. Microdoppler is a safe, noninvasive, and reliable technique for evaluation of hemodynamics of vessels in the surgical field, with the advantage of ease of use. Intraoperative MRI provides an effective navigation tool for cavernoma surgery, in addition to assessing the extent of resection during the procedure. Intraoperative CT scanning has the advantage of very high sensitivity to acute bleeding, thereby assisting in the confirmation of the extent of hematoma evacuation and the extent of vascular anomaly resection. Intraoperative ultrasound aids navigation and evacuation assessment during intracerebral hematoma evacuation surgeries. It supports the concept of minimally invasive surgery and has undergone extensive development in recent years, with the quality of ultrasound imaging having improved considerably.

Image-guided therapy, combined with modern intraoperative imaging modalities, has changed the fundamentals of conventional vascular neurosurgery by presenting real-time visualization of both normal tissue and pathological entities. These imaging techniques are important adjuncts to the surgeon's standard surgical armamentarium. Familiarity with these imaging modalities may help the surgeon complete procedures with improved safety, efficiency, and clinical outcome.

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Zvi R. Cohen, Nachshon Knoller, Moshe Hadani, Ben Davidson, Dvora Nass and Zvi Ram

✓ Intratumoral hemorrhage as the presenting symptom of spinal tumors is rare. The authors describe a patient who presented with rapidly progressing paraplegia 24 hours after sustaining a minor traumatic injury of the thoracic spine. Radiological evaluation demonstrated a low-thoracic intradural tumor that was resected and found to be a neurinoma in which severe intra- and peritumoral hemorrhage was revealed. The radiological, surgical, and pathological findings are presented and discussed.

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Roberto Spiegelmann, Zvi Lidar, Jana Gofman, Dror Alezra, Moshe Hadani and Raphael Pfeffer

Object. The use of radiosurgery in the treatment of acoustic neuromas has increased substantially during the last decade. Most published experience relates to the use of the gamma knife. In this report, the authors review the methods and results of linear accelerator (LINAC) radiosurgery in 44 patients with acoustic neuromas who were treated between 1993 and 1997.

Methods. Computerized tomography scanning was selected as the stereotactic imaging modality for target definition. A single, conformally shaped isocenter was used in the treatment of 40 patients; two or three isocenters were used in four patients who harbored very irregular tumors. The radiation dose directed to the tumor border was the only parameter that changed during the study period: in the first 24 patients who were treated the dose was 15 to 20 Gy, whereas in the last 20 patients the dose was reduced to 11 to 14 Gy. After a mean follow-up period of 32 months (range 12–60 months), 98% of the tumors were controlled. The actuarial hearing preservation rate was 71%. New transient facial neuropathy developed in 24% of the patients and persisted to a mild degree in 8%. Radiation dose correlated significantly with the incidence of cranial neuropathy, particularly in large tumors (≥ 4 cm3).

Conclusions. Single-isocenter LINAC radiosurgery proved to be an effective treatment for acoustic neuromas in this series, with results that were comparable with those reported for gamma knife radiosurgery and multiple isocenters.

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Zvi Lidar, Yael Mardor, Tali Jonas, Raphael Pfeffer, Meir Faibel, Dvora Nass, Moshe Hadani and Zvi Ram

Object. A minority of patients with recurrent glioblastomas multiforme (GBMs) responds to systemic chemotherapy. The authors investigated the safety and efficacy of intratumoral convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of paclitaxel in patients harboring histologically confirmed recurrent GBMs and anaplastic astrocytomas.

Methods. Fifteen patients received a total of 20 cycles of intratumoral CED of paclitaxel. The patients were observed daily by performing diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess the convective process and routine diagnostic MR imaging to identify the tumor response. Effective convection was determined by the progression of the hyperintense signal within the tumor on DW MR images, which corresponded to a subsequent lytic tumor response displayed on conventional MR images. Of the 15 patients, five complete responses and six partial responses were observed, giving a response rate of 73%. The antitumor effect was confirmed by one biopsy and three en bloc resections of tumors, which showed a complete response, and by one tumor resection, which demonstrated a partial response. Lack of convection and a poor tumor response was associated with leakage of the convected drug into the subarachnoid space, ventricles, and cavities formed by previous resections, and was seen in tumors containing widespread necrosis. Complications included transient chemical meningitis in six patients, infectious complications in three patients, and transient neurological deterioration in four patients (presumably due to increased peritumoral edema).

Conclusions. On the basis of our data we suggest that CED of paclitaxel in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas is associated with a high antitumor response rate, although it is associated with a significant incidence of treatment-associated complications. Diffusion-weighted MR images may be used to predict a response by demonstrating the extent of convection during treatment. Optimization of this therapeutic approach to enhance its efficacy and reduce its toxicity should be explored further.

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Nachshon Knoller, Gustavo Auerbach, Valentin Fulga, Gabriel Zelig, Josef Attias, Ronit Bakimer, Jonathan B. Marder, Eti Yoles, Michael Belkin, Michal Schwartz and Moshe Hadani

Object. A Phase I, open-label nonrandomized study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of incubated autologous macrophages administered to patients with acute complete spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods. This therapy was first tested in rat models of spinal cord transection and contusion, in which it was shown to promote motor recovery. The procedure developed for clinical use consists of isolating monocytes from patient blood and incubating them ex vivo with autologous dermis. The resulting incubated autologous macrophages were injected into the patient's spinal cord immediately caudal to the lesion within 14 days of injury. Patients underwent preoperative and follow-up neurological assessment (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] standards), electrophysiological monitoring (motor evoked and/or somatosensory evoked potentials), magnetic resonance imaging, and safety monitoring. Before macrophage administration, complete neurological functional loss (ASIA Grade A) was confirmed in all patients. Of the eight patients in the study, three recovered clinically significant neurological motor and sensory function (ASIA Grade C status). During the study period, some adverse events were encountered, the most serious of which involved two cases of pulmonary embolism and one case of osteomyelitis that were treated and resolved without further complication. These and other adverse events appear to be similar to those encountered in other spinal cord—injured patients and are not considered a consequence of the experimental therapy.

Conclusions. It is concluded that incubated autologous macrophage cell therapy is well tolerated in patients with acute SCI. Further clinical evaluation is warranted.