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Danilo Silva, Moshe Attia and Theodore H. Schwartz

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Moshe Attia, Felix Umansky, Iddo Paldor, Shlomo Dotan, Yigal Shoshan and Sergey Spektor

Object

Surgery for giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas that invade vital neurovascular structures surrounding the anterior clinoid process is challenging. The authors present their skull base technique for the treatment of giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas, defined here as globular tumors with a maximum diameter of 5 cm or larger, centered around the anterior clinoid process, which is usually hyperostotic.

Methods

Between 2000 and 2010, the authors performed 23 surgeries in 22 patients with giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas. They used a skull base approach with extradural unroofing of the optic canal, extradural clinoidectomy (Dolenc technique), transdural debulking of the tumor, early optic nerve decompression, and early identification and control of key neurovascular structures.

Results

The mean age at surgery was 53.8 years. The mean tumor diameter was 59.2 mm (range 50–85 mm) with cavernous sinus involvement in 59.1% (13 of 22 patients). The tumor involved the prechiasmatic segment of the optic nerve in all patients, invaded the optic canal in 77.3% (17 of 22 patients), and caused visual impairment in 86.4% (19 of 22 patients). Total resection (Simpson Grade I or II) was achieved in 30.4% of surgeries (7 of 23); subtotal and partial resections were each achieved in 34.8% of surgeries (8 of 23). The main factor precluding total removal was cavernous sinus involvement. There were no deaths. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4.8 (median 5) at a mean of 56 months of follow-up. Vision improved in 66.7% (12 of 18 patients) with consecutive neuroophthalmological examinations, was stable in 22.2% (4 of 18), and deteriorated in 11.1% (2 of 18). New deficits in cranial nerve III or IV remained after 8.7% of surgeries (2 of 23).

Conclusions

This modified surgical protocol has provided both a good extent of resection and a good neurological and visual outcome in patients with giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas.

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Nachshon Knoller, Gustavo Auerbach, Valentin Fulga, Gabriel Zelig, Josef Attias, Ronit Bakimer, Jonathan B. Marder, Eti Yoles, Michael Belkin, Michal Schwartz and Moshe Hadani

Object. A Phase I, open-label nonrandomized study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of incubated autologous macrophages administered to patients with acute complete spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods. This therapy was first tested in rat models of spinal cord transection and contusion, in which it was shown to promote motor recovery. The procedure developed for clinical use consists of isolating monocytes from patient blood and incubating them ex vivo with autologous dermis. The resulting incubated autologous macrophages were injected into the patient's spinal cord immediately caudal to the lesion within 14 days of injury. Patients underwent preoperative and follow-up neurological assessment (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] standards), electrophysiological monitoring (motor evoked and/or somatosensory evoked potentials), magnetic resonance imaging, and safety monitoring. Before macrophage administration, complete neurological functional loss (ASIA Grade A) was confirmed in all patients. Of the eight patients in the study, three recovered clinically significant neurological motor and sensory function (ASIA Grade C status). During the study period, some adverse events were encountered, the most serious of which involved two cases of pulmonary embolism and one case of osteomyelitis that were treated and resolved without further complication. These and other adverse events appear to be similar to those encountered in other spinal cord—injured patients and are not considered a consequence of the experimental therapy.

Conclusions. It is concluded that incubated autologous macrophage cell therapy is well tolerated in patients with acute SCI. Further clinical evaluation is warranted.