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Timothy R. Miller, Sijia Guo, Elias R. Melhem, Howard M. Eisenberg, Jiachen Zhuo, Nathaniel Kelm, Mor Dayan, Rao P. Gullapalli and Dheeraj Gandhi

OBJECTIVE

Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is being investigated for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease symptoms. However, GPi lesioning presents unique challenges due to the off-midline location of the target. Furthermore, it remains uncertain whether intraprocedural MR thermometry data can predict final lesion characteristics.

METHODS

The authors first performed temperature simulations of GPi pallidotomy and compared the results with those of actual cases and the results of ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) thalamotomy performed for essential tremor treatment. Next, thermometry data from 13 MRgFUS pallidotomy procedures performed at their institution were analyzed using 46°C, 48°C, 50°C, and 52°C temperature thresholds. The resulting thermal models were compared with resulting GPi lesions noted on postprocedure days 1 and 30. Finally, the treatment efficiency (energy per temperature rise) of pallidotomy was evaluated.

RESULTS

The authors’ modeled acoustic intensity maps correctly demonstrate the elongated, ellipsoid lesions noted during GPi pallidotomy. In treated patients, the 48°C temperature threshold maps most accurately predicted postprocedure day 1 lesion size, while no correlation was found for day 30 lesions. The average energy/temperature rise of pallidotomy was higher (612 J/°C) than what had been noted for VIM thalamotomy and varied with the patients’ skull density ratios (SDRs).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ acoustic simulations accurately depicted the characteristics of thermal lesions encountered following MRgFUS pallidotomy. MR thermometry data can predict postprocedure day 1 GPi lesion characteristics using a 48°C threshold model. Finally, the lower treatment efficiency of pallidotomy may make GPi lesioning challenging in patients with a low SDR.

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Marissa D’Souza, Kevin S. Chen, Jarrett Rosenberg, W. Jeffrey Elias, Howard M. Eisenberg, Ryder Gwinn, Takaomi Taira, Jin Woo Chang, Nir Lipsman, Vibhor Krishna, Keiji Igase, Kazumichi Yamada, Haruhiko Kishima, Rees Cosgrove, Jordi Rumià, Michael G. Kaplitt, Hidehiro Hirabayashi, Dipankar Nandi, Jaimie M. Henderson, Kim Butts Pauly, Mor Dayan, Casey H. Halpern and Pejman Ghanouni

OBJECTIVE

Skull density ratio (SDR) assesses the transparency of the skull to ultrasound. Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor (ET) patients with a lower SDR may be less effective, and the risk for complications may be increased. To address these questions, the authors analyzed clinical outcomes of MRgFUS thalamotomy based on SDRs.

METHODS

In 189 patients, 3 outcomes were correlated with SDRs. Efficacy was based on improvement in Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) scores 1 year after MRgFUS. Procedural efficiency was determined by the ease of achieving a peak voxel temperature of 54°C. Safety was based on the rate of the most severe procedure-related adverse event. SDRs were categorized at thresholds of 0.45 and 0.40, selected based on published criteria.

RESULTS

Of 189 patients, 53 (28%) had an SDR < 0.45 and 20 (11%) had an SDR < 0.40. There was no significant difference in improvement in CRST scores between those with an SDR ≥ 0.45 (58% ± 24%), 0.40 ≤ SDR < 0.45 (i.e., SDR ≥ 0.40 but < 0.45) (63% ± 27%), and SDR < 0.40 (49% ± 28%; p = 0.0744). Target temperature was achieved more often in those with an SDR ≥ 0.45 (p < 0.001). Rates of adverse events were lower in the groups with an SDR < 0.45 (p = 0.013), with no severe adverse events in these groups.

CONCLUSIONS

MRgFUS treatment of ET can be effectively and safely performed in patients with an SDR < 0.45 and an SDR < 0.40, although the procedure is more efficient when SDR ≥ 0.45.