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Myoung Soo Kim, Chang Wan Oh, Dae Hee Han, O-Ki Kwon, Hee-Won Jung and Moon Hee Han

✓ The most common clinical presentations of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are bruit, headache, increased intracranial pressure, and intracranial hemorrhage. In particular locations, such as the cavernous sinus or middle cranial fossa, cranial nerve involvement due to dural arterial steal or venous occlusion may develop. A case in which a DAVF is associated with hearing loss, however, has not previously been reported. The authors report a case in which an intraosseous DAVF and associated hearing loss probably resulted from cochlear nerve or vascular compression caused by the draining vein or nidus of the DAVF.

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Hyun-Seung Kang, Moon Hee Han, Bae Ju Kwon, Byung-Woo Yoon and Kee-Hyun Chang

✓ The concept of a cerebrofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS) recently has been posited. A 22-year-old woman presented with gait ataxia. She had unilateral angiomatous lesions involving the lower face, the auricle, and the retromastoid area, as well as the tongue on the right side. Angiography revealed the presence of extensive arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the ipsilateral cerebellum and pons, in addition to those located in the facial region. The authors report a case of multiple AVMs of the face, cerebellum, and pons, corresponding to CAMS Type 3, and include a review of the literature.

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So-Hyang Im, Moon Hee Han, Bae Ju Kwon, Jung Yong Ahn, Cheolkyu Jung, Sung-Hye Park, Chang Wan Oh and Dae Hee Han

Object

Considerable confusion exists in the literature regarding the classification of cerebrovascular malformations and their clinical significance. One example is provided by the atypical developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with arteriovenous shunt, because it remains controversial whether these lesions should be classified as DVAs or as atypical cases of other subtypes of cerebrovascular malformations. The purpose of this study was to clarify the classification of these challenging vascular lesions in an effort to suggest an appropriate diagnosis and management strategy.

Methods

The authors present a series of 15 patients with intracranial vascular malformations that were angiographically classified as atypical DVAs with arteriovenous shunts. This type of vascular malformation shows a fine arterial blush without a distinct nidus and early filling of dilated medullary veins that drain these arterial components during the arterial phase on angiography. Those prominent medullary veins converge toward an enlarged main draining vein, which together form the caput medusae appearance of a typical DVA.

Results

Based on clinical, angiographic, surgical, and histological findings, the authors propose classifying these vascular malformations as a subtype of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), rather than as a variant of DVA or as a combined vascular malformation.

Conclusions

Correct recognition of this AVM subtype is required for its proper management, and its clinical behavior appears to follow that of a typical AVM. Gamma Knife radiosurgery appears to be a good alternative to resection, although long-term follow-up results require verification.

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Jae Hyo Park, Jeong Eun Kim, Seung Hun Sheen, Cheol Kyu Jung, Bae Ju Kwon, O-Ki Kwon, Chang Wan Oh, Moon Hee Han and Dae Hee Han

Object

Experience with intraarterial abciximab for the treatment of thromboembolism during endovascular coil embolization is limited. The authors report the outcome of intraarterial abciximab use, with an emphasis on fatal hemorrhagic complications.

Methods

Between March 2003 and May 2006, the authors treated 606 aneurysms by using endovascular coil embolization, and in 32 (5.3%) of these aneurysms (31 patients) an intraarterial thrombus developed. Sixteen of these aneurysms were ruptured and the other 16 were unruptured. Arterial thrombi were totally occlusive in 3 and partially occlusive in the remaining 29 cases. Intraarterial abciximab was administered at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml as a bolus of 4–15 mg over a period of 15–30 minutes.

Results

Complete thrombolysis was achieved in 17 (53%) and partial thrombolysis in 15 (47%) of 32 lesions. Twenty-eight patients (90.3%) were asymptomatic after abciximab thrombolysis, but 3 had postprocedural rebleeding that occurred after abciximab treatment; all of these patients had recently experienced an aneurysm rupture. Of these patients, 1 displayed severe thrombocytopenia and the other 2 showed a > 25% reduction in platelet count after abciximab treatment.

Conclusions

Intraarterial abciximab is effective for the treatment of thromboembolic complications that occur during intracranial aneurysm coil insertion. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to prevent potentially fatal complications such as thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage, especially in patients with a ruptured aneurysm.

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Jae Hyo Park, Park In Sung, Dae Hee Han, Seong Hyun Kim, Chang Wan Oh, Jeong-Eun Kim, Hyun Jib Kim, Moon Hee Han and O-Ki Kwon

Object

Because of its thin wall, an aneurysm arising from the posterior wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the so-called blood blister–like aneurysm (BBA), is difficult to manage surgically and is often associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The authors treated these aneurysms endovascularly. In this paper, they present angiographic and clinical results obtained in patients with ICA BBAs treated endovascularly.

Methods

In seven patients with ICA BBAs who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, a total number of 12 endovascular treatments were performed, including seven endosaccular coil embolizations (four conventional, two stent-assisted and one balloon-assisted procedure) in four patients and five endovascular ICA trapping procedures in five patients. Repeated endovascular treatments were undertaken in four patients. In two patients, the endovascular treatment was performed after failure of surgical treatment (one case of rebleeding after clip placement and one aneurysmal regrowth after wrapping). A balloon occlusion test (BOT) was performed in all patients prior to ICA trapping.

All four patients treated by endosaccular coil embolization showed aneurysmal regrowth. Neither stents nor balloons helpfully prevented aneurysmal regrowth. Of these four patients, two experienced rebleeding. These two patients remained vegetative at the last follow-up examination. After the BOT, ICA trapping was performed with coils and balloons without complication in five patients; excellent outcomes were achieved in all cases but one in which the patient had been in poor neurological condition due to rebleeding after surgical clip therapy.

Conclusions

All ICA BBAs that were treated by endosaccular coil embolization exhibited regrowth of the aneurysm. Some of the lesions rebled. The majority of patients who underwent ICA trapping experienced excellent outcomes. Based on the authors' experiences, they suggest that ICA trapping including the lesion segment should be considered as a first option for definitive treatment if a BOT reveals satisfactory results. Regarding trapping methods, endovascular treatment may be preferred because of its convenience and safety.

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Won-Sang Cho, Ki-Jeong Kim, O-Ki Kwon, Chi Heon Kim, Jiha Kim, Moon Hee Han and Chun Kee Chung

Object

Spinal vascular diseases, such as spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), and spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), are very rare. The authors analyzed the features and treatment outcomes of these conditions.

Methods

Data from 64 patients were retrospectively reviewed. There were 33 spinal DAVFs (1 patient had 2 lesions), 20 perimedullary AVFs, and 12 spinal AVMs. Clinical features, radiological findings, treatment results, and clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the diseases, subtypes, and treatment modalities. The median duration of follow-up was 20, 42, and 56 months for spinal DAVFs, perimedullary AVFs, and spinal AVMs, respectively.

Results

Spinal DAVFs showed faster progression of symptoms (median 5, 12, and 36 months for spinal DAVFs, perimedullary AVFs, and spinal AVMs, respectively) and worse neurological status at diagnosis (poor neurological status in 56%, 65%, and 33%, respectively). On MRI, signal voids were demonstrated in all except 1 spinal DAVF. At the last follow-up, 94% of spinal DAVFs, 68% of perimedullary AVFs, and 50% of spinal AVMs were completely obliterated. Favorable clinical outcomes were achieved in 91%, 95%, and 58%, respectively. In detail, the majority (78%) of spinal DAVFs were embolized, resulting in complete obliteration in 92% and favorable clinical outcomes in 92%. Most Type IVa and IVb perimedullary AVFs were surgically treated (71% and 88%), with complete obliterations of 86% and 71%, and favorable clinical outcomes in 100% and 86%, respectively. All Type IVc lesions were embolized with a low cure rate of 40%; however, clinical outcomes were satisfactory. Spinal AVMs were generally embolized (67%), and only glomus-type lesions attained a satisfactory cure rate (80%) and clinical outcome (100%).

Conclusions

Embolization produced satisfactory outcomes in spinal DAVFs and glomus-type spinal AVMs. Surgery is advantageous in Type IVa and IVb perimedullary AVFs. Palliative embolization can be effective in Type IVc perimedullary AVFs and juvenile spinal AVMs.

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Hyun-Seung Kang, Bae Ju Kwon, O-Ki Kwon, Cheolkyu Jung, Jeong Eun Kim, Chang Wan Oh and Moon Hee Han

Object

Anterior choroidal artery (AChA) aneurysms are difficult to treat, and the clinical outcome of patients is occasionally compromised by ischemic complications after clipping operations. The purpose of this study was to document the outcome and follow-up results of endovascular coil embolization in patients with AChA aneurysms.

Methods

Between July 1999 and March 2008, 88 patients with 90 AChA aneurysms (31 ruptured and 59 unruptured aneurysms) were treated with endovascular coil embolization in 91 sessions. There were 87 small aneurysms (< 10 mm) and 3 large aneurysms, with a mean aneurysm volume of 60.9 ± 83.3 mm3. Preprocedural oculomotor nerve palsy associated with AChA aneurysms was noted in 8 patients. Efficacy and safety were evaluated based on the degree of initial occlusion, procedure-related complications, patient outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale score, and follow-up results.

Results

The degree of angiographic occlusion of the aneurysms was complete for 15 aneurysms (17%), near complete for 69 aneurysms (77%) and partial for 6 aneurysms (7%). There were 4 (4.4%) symptomatic procedure-related complications (3 thromboembolic events and 1 procedural hemorrhage). The procedural hemorrhage resulted in death; however, the thromboembolic events only caused transient deficits. A favorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5 or 4) was achieved in 90% (79 of 88) of the patients at the time of discharge. No patient showed signs of bleeding or rebleeding during the follow-up period (mean 25 months). Major aneurysm recanalization occurred in 2 cases. The AChA aneurysm–associated oculomotor nerve palsy tended to become aggravated transiently after coil embolization and then completely recovered over the course of 2–9 months.

Conclusions

Coil embolization is a safe and effective treatment modality in cases of AChA aneurysms. Coil embolization enables procedural recognition of arterial compromise and immediate reestablishment of flow, thus contributing to a favorable outcome.

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Eung Koo Yeon, Young Dae Cho, Dong Hyun Yoo, Su Hwan Lee, Hyun-Seung Kang, Jeong Eun Kim, Won-Sang Cho, Hyun Ho Choi and Moon Hee Han

OBJECTIVE

The authors conducted a study to ascertain the long-term durability of coiled aneurysms completely occluded at 36 months’ follow-up given the potential for delayed recanalization.

METHODS

In this retrospective review, the authors examined 299 patients with 339 aneurysms, all shown to be completely occluded at 36 months on follow-up images obtained between 2011 and 2013. Medical records and radiological data acquired during the extended monitoring period (mean 74.3 ± 22.5 months) were retrieved, and the authors analyzed the incidence of (including mean annual risk) and risk factors for delayed recanalization.

RESULTS

A total of 5 coiled aneurysms (1.5%) occluded completely at 36 months showed recanalization (0.46% per aneurysm-year) during the long-term surveillance period (1081.9 aneurysm-years), 2 surfacing within 60 months and 3 developing thereafter. Four showed minor recanalization, with only one instance of major recanalization. The latter involved the posterior communicating artery as an apparent de novo lesion, arising at the neck of a firmly coiled sac, and was unrelated to coil compaction or growth. Additional embolization was undertaken. In a multivariate analysis, a second embolization for a recurrent aneurysm (HR = 22.088, p = 0.003) independently correlated with delayed recanalization.

CONCLUSIONS

Almost all coiled aneurysms (98.5%) showing complete occlusion at 36 months postembolization proved to be stable during extended observation. However, recurrent aneurysms were predisposed to delayed recanalization. Given the low probability yet seriousness of delayed recanalization and the possibility of de novo aneurysm formation, careful monitoring may be still considered in this setting but at less frequent intervals beyond 36 months.

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Hyun Ho Choi, Young Dae Cho, Dong Hyun Yoo, Su Hwan Lee, Eung Koo Yeon, Hyun-Seung Kang, Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim and Moon Hee Han

OBJECTIVE

In the presence of symmetric A1 flow, the safety and efficacy of compromising the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) during coil embolization of ACoA aneurysms has yet to be evaluated. Herein, the authors describe their experience, focusing on procedural safety.

METHODS

Between October 2012 and July 2017, 285 ACoA aneurysms with symmetric A1 flows were treated at the authors’ institution by endovascular coil embolization. Clinical and angiographic outcome data were subjected to binary logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

ACoA compromise was chosen in the treatment of 71 aneurysms (24.9%), which were completely (n = 15) or incompletely (n = 56) compromised. In the remaining 214 lesions, the ACoA was preserved. Although 9 patients (3.2%) experienced procedure-related thromboembolisms (compromised, 4; preserved, 5), all but 1 patient (with ACoA compromise) were asymptomatic. In multivariate analysis, subarachnoid hemorrhage at presentation was the sole independent risk factor for thromboembolism (OR 15.98, p < 0.01), with ACoA compromise being statistically unrelated. In 276 aneurysms (96.8%) with follow-up of > 6 months (mean 20.9 ± 13.1 months, range 6–54 months), recanalization was confirmed in 21 (minor, 15; major, 6). A narrow (≤ 4 mm) saccular neck (p < 0.01) and ACoA compromise (p = 0.04) were independently linked to prevention of recanalization.

CONCLUSIONS

During coil embolization of ACoA aneurysms, the ACoA may be compromised without serious complications if A1 flows are symmetric. This approach may also confer some long-term protection from recanalization, serving as a valid treatment option for such lesions.

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You Gyoung Yi, Keewon Kim, Hyung-Ik Shin, Moon Suk Bang, Hee-Soo Kim, Jinwoo Choi, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seung-Ki Kim, Ji Yeoun Lee, Ji Hoon Phi and Han Gil Seo

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of intraoperative motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in infants less than 3 months of age.

METHODS

The authors investigated 25 cases in which infants younger than 3 months (mean age 72.8 days, range 39–87) underwent neurosurgery between 2014 and 2017. Myogenic MEPs were obtained through transcranial electrical stimulation. In all cases, surgery was performed under total intravenous anesthesia, maintained with remifentanil and propofol.

RESULTS

MEPs were documented in 24 infants, the sole exception being 1 infant who was lethargic and had 4-limb weakness before surgery. The mean stimulation intensity maintained during monitoring was 596 ± 154 V (range 290–900 V). In 19 of 24 infants MEP signals remained at ≥ 50% of the baseline amplitude throughout the operation. Among 5 cases with a decrease in intraoperative MEP amplitude, the MEP signal was recovered in one during surgery, and in the other case a neurological examination could not be performed after surgery. In the other 3 cases, 2 infants had relevant postoperative weakness and the other did not show postoperative neurological deficits. Postoperative weakness was not observed in any of the 20 infants who had no deterioration (n = 19) or only temporary deterioration (n = 1) in MEP signal during surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Transcranial electrical MEPs could be implemented during neurosurgery in infants between 1 and 3 months of age. Intraoperative MEP monitoring may be a safe adjunct for neurosurgical procedures in these very young patients.