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Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Anshit Goyal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, FM Moinuddin and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Recent studies have reported on the utility of radiosurgery for local control and symptom relief in spinal meningioma. The authors sought to evaluate national utilization trends in radiotherapy (including radiosurgery), investigate possible factors associated with its use in patients with spinal meningioma, and its impact on survival for atypical tumors.

METHODS

Using the ICD-O-3 topographical codes C70.1, C72.0, and C72.1 and histological codes 9530–9535 and 9537–9539, the authors queried the National Cancer Database for patients in whom spinal meningioma had been diagnosed between 2004 and 2015. Patients who had undergone radiation in addition to surgery and those who had received radiation as the only treatment were analyzed for factors associated with each treatment.

RESULTS

From among 10,458 patients with spinal meningioma in the database, the authors found a total of 268 patients who had received any type of radiation. The patients were divided into two main groups for the analysis of radiation alone (137 [51.1%]) and radiation plus surgery (131 [48.9%]). An age > 69 years (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.03), and tumor size 5 to < 6 cm (p < 0.001) were found to be associated with significantly higher odds of receiving radiation alone, whereas a Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index ≥ 2 (p = 0.01) was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving radiation alone. Moreover, a larger tumor size (2 to < 3 cm, p = 0.01; 3 to < 4 cm, p < 0.001; 4 to < 5 cm, p < 0.001; 5 to < 6 cm, p < 0.001; and ≥ 6 cm, p < 0.001; reference = 1 to < 2 cm), as well as borderline (p < 0.001) and malignant (p < 0.001) tumors were found to be associated with increased odds of undergoing radiation in addition to surgery. Receiving adjuvant radiation conferred a significant reduction in overall mortality among patients with borderline or malignant spinal meningiomas (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.02–4.1, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

The current analysis of cases from a national cancer database revealed a small increase in the use of radiation for the management of spinal meningioma without a significant increase in overall survival. Larger tumor size and borderline or malignant behavior were found to be associated with increased radiation use. Data in the present analysis failed to show an overall survival benefit in utilizing adjuvant radiation for atypical tumors.

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Mohammed Adeeb Sebai, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Jang Won Yoon, Robert J. Spinner and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Spinal peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are a group of rare tumors originating from the nerve and its supporting structures. Standard surgical management typically entails laminectomy with or without facetectomy to gain adequate tumor exposure. Arthrodesis is occasionally performed to maintain spinal stability and mitigate the risk of postoperative deformity, pain, or neurological deficit. However, the factors associated with the need for instrumentation in addition to PNST resection in the same setting remain unclear.

METHODS

An institutional tumor registry at a tertiary care center was queried for patients treated surgically for a primary diagnosis of spinal PNST between 2002 and 2016. An analysis focused on patients in whom a facetectomy was performed during the resection. The addition of arthrodesis at the index procedure comprised the primary outcome. The authors also recorded baseline demographics, tumor characteristics, and surgery-related variables. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased risk of fusion surgery.

RESULTS

A total of 163 patients were identified, of which 56 (32 had facetectomy with fusion, 24 had facetectomy alone) were analyzed. The median age was 48 years, and 50% of the cohort was female. Age, sex, and race, as well as tumor histology and size, were evenly distributed between patients who received facetectomy alone and those who had facetectomy and fusion. On univariate analysis, total versus subtotal facetectomy (OR 9.0, 95% CI 2.01–64.2; p = 0.009) and cervicothoracic versus other spinal region (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.51–172.9; p = 0.048) were significantly associated with increased odds of performing immediate fusion. On multivariable analysis, only the effect of total facetectomy remained statistically significant (OR 6.75, 95% CI 1.47–48.8; p = 0.025).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that total facetectomy and cervicothoracic involvement may be highly associated with the need for concomitant arthrodesis at the time of index surgery. These findings may help surgeons to determine the best surgical planning for patients with PNST.

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Mohammed Ali Alvi, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Mohamad Bydon, Harry Cloft and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECTIVE

The impact of FDA approval of flow-diversion technology for the treatment of supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms and the publication of the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study, both of which occurred in 2011, on the utilization of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypasses is not known.

METHODS

The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for hospitalizations for EC-IC bypass performed from 2008 to 2016. Diagnoses of interest included an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), carotid occlusive disease (COD), and moyamoya disease. The authors assessed trends in EC-IC bypass utilization for these diagnoses and the incidence of adverse discharges, defined as discharge to locations other than home, and the rate of mortality.

RESULTS

A total of 1640 EC-IC bypass procedures were performed at 558 hospitals during the study period, with 1148 procedures at 448 hospitals performed for a diagnosis of interest. The most frequent surgical indication was moyamoya disease (65.7%, n = 754), followed by COD (23.2%, n = 266), SAH (3.2%, n = 37), and a UIA (7.9%, n = 91). EC-IC bypass utilization for COD decreased from 0.21 per 100 admissions of COD in 2010 to 0.09 per 100 admissions in 2016 (p = 0.023). The frequency of adverse discharges increased during the study period from 22.3% of annual admissions in 2008 to 31.2% in 2016 (p = 0.030) when analysis was limited to procedures performed for a diagnosis of interest. Per volume, the top 5th percentile of hospitals, on average, performed 18.4 procedures (SD 13.2) per hospital during the study period, compared to 1.3 procedures (SD 1.3) that were performed in hospitals within the bottom 95th percentile. The rate of adverse discharges was higher at low-volume institutions when compared to that at high-volume institutions (33.8% vs 28.7%; p = 0.029). Over the study period, the authors noted a trend toward a reduced percentage of total surgical volume performed at high-volume hospitals (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors observed a decrease in the utilization of EC-IC bypass for COD during the study period. An increase in the rate of adverse discharges was also noted, coinciding with more procedures being performed at lower-volume centers.

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Mohammed Ali Alvi, Redab Alkhataybeh, Waseem Wahood, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Sandy Goncalves, M. Hassan Murad and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Transpsoas lateral interbody fusion is one of the lateral minimally invasive approaches for lumbar spine surgery. Most surgeons insert the interbody cage laterally and then insert pedicle or cortical screw and rod instrumentation posteriorly. However, standalone cages have also been used to avoid posterior instrumentation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the literature on comparison of the two approaches is sparse.

METHODS

The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature on transpsoas lateral interbody fusion by an electronic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases using PRISMA guidelines. They compared patients undergoing transpsoas standalone fusion (TP) with those undergoing transpsoas fusion with posterior instrumentation (TPP).

RESULTS

A total of 28 studies with 1462 patients were included. Three hundred and seventy-four patients underwent TPP, and 956 patients underwent TP. The mean patient age ranged from 45.7 to 68 years in the TP group, and 50 to 67.7 years in the TPP group. The incidence of reoperation was found to be higher for TP (0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11) compared to TPP (0.03, 95% CI 0.01–0.06; p = 0.057). Similarly, the incidence of cage movement was found to be greater in TP (0.18, 95% CI 0.10–0.26) compared to TPP (0.03, 95% CI 0.00–0.05; p < 0.001). Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores and postoperative transient deficits were found to be comparable between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

These results appear to suggest that addition of posterior instrumentation to transpsoas fusion is associated with decreased reoperations and cage movements. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be reevaluated in light of these results, which seem to suggest that higher reoperation and subsidence rates may be due to the use of the standalone technique.

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Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Waseem Wahood, Abdullah T. Eissa, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Brett A. Freedman, Benjamin D. Elder and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a biological agent obtained by centrifuging a sample of blood and retrieving a high concentration of platelets and plasma components. The concentrate is then stimulated for platelet secretion of various growth factors and cytokines. Although it is not widely used in clinical practice, its role in augmenting bony union among patients undergoing spinal fusion has been assessed in several clinical studies. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature to determine the efficacy of PRP use in spinal fusion procedures.

METHODS

A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE for studies from all available dates. From eligible studies, data regarding the fusion rate and method of assessing fusion, estimated blood loss (EBL), and baseline and final visual analog scale (VAS) scores were collected as the primary outcomes of interest. Patients were grouped by those undergoing spinal fusion with PRP and bone graft (PRP group) and those only with bone graft (graft-only group).

RESULTS

The literature search resulted in 207 articles. Forty-five full-text articles were screened, of which 11 studies were included, resulting in a meta-analysis including 741 patients. Patients without PRP were more likely to have a successful fusion at the last follow-up compared with those with PRP in their bone grafts (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34–0.84; p = 0.006). There was no statistically significant difference with regard to change in VAS scores (OR 0.00, 95% CI −2.84 to 2.84; p > 0.99) or change in EBL (OR 3.67, 95% CI −67.13–74.48; p = 0.92) between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS

This study found that the additional use of PRP was not associated with any significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes and was actually found to be associated with lower fusion rates compared with standard grafting techniques. Thus, PRP may have a limited role in augmenting spinal fusion.

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Anthony L. Asher, Clinton J. Devin, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Hui Nian, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Inamullah Khan, Ahilan Sivaganesan, Frank E. Harrell Jr., Kristin R. Archer and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Patient satisfaction with treatment outcome is gaining an increasingly important role in assessing the value of surgical spine care delivery. Nationwide data evaluating the predictors of patient satisfaction in elective cervical spine surgery are lacking. The authors sought to decipher the impacts of the patient, surgical practice, and surgeon on satisfaction with outcome following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

METHODS

The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients undergoing 1- to 2-level ACDF for degenerative spine disease since 2013. Patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome as measured by the North American Spine Society (NASS) scale comprised the primary outcome. A multivariable proportional odds logistic regression model was constructed with adjustments for baseline patient characteristics and surgical practice and surgeon characteristics as fixed effects.

RESULTS

A total of 4148 patients (median age 54 years, 48% males) with complete 12-month NASS satisfaction data were analyzed. Sixty-seven percent of patients answered that “surgery met their expectations” (n = 2803), while 20% reported that they “did not improve as much as they had hoped but they would undergo the same operation for the same results” (n = 836). After adjusting for a multitude of patient-specific as well as hospital- and surgeon-related factors, the authors found baseline Neck Disability Index (NDI) score, US geographic region of hospital, patient race, insurance status, symptom duration, and Workers’ compensation status to be the most important predictors of patient satisfaction. The discriminative ability of the model was satisfactory (c-index 0.66, overfitting-corrected estimate 0.64).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results found baseline NDI score, patient race, insurance status, symptom duration, and Workers’ compensation status as well as the geographic region of the hospital to be the most important predictors of long-term patient satisfaction after a 1- to 2-level ACDF. The findings of the present analysis further reinforce the role of preoperative discussion with patients on setting treatment goals and realistic expectations.

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Mohamed Macki, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Shujie Xiao, Lonni Schultz, Michael Bazydlo, Mohamad Bydon, Paul Park, Victor Chang and for the MSSIC Investigators

OBJECTIVE

As compensation transitions from a fee-for-service to pay-for-performance healthcare model, providers must prioritize patient-centered experiences. Here, the authors’ primary aim was to identify predictors of patient dissatisfaction at 1 and 2 years after lumbar surgery.

METHODS

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) was queried for all lumbar operations at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Predictors of patients’ postoperative contentment were identified per the North American Spine Surgery (NASS) Patient Satisfaction Index, wherein satisfied patients were assigned a score of 1 (“the treatment met my expectations”) or 2 (“I did not improve as much as I had hoped, but I would undergo the same treatment for the same outcome”) and unsatisfied patients were assigned a score of 3 (“I did not improve as much as I had hoped, and I would not undergo the same treatment for the same outcome”) or 4 (“I am the same or worse than before treatment”). Multivariable Poisson generalized estimating equation models were used to report adjusted risk ratios (RRadj).

RESULTS

Among 5390 patients with a 1-year follow-up, 22% reported dissatisfaction postoperatively. Dissatisfaction was predicted by higher body mass index (RRadj =1.07, p < 0.001), African American race compared to white (RRadj = 1.51, p < 0.001), education level less than high school graduation compared to a high school diploma or equivalent (RRadj = 1.25, p = 0.008), smoking (RRadj = 1.34, p < 0.001), daily preoperative opioid use > 6 months (RRadj = 1.22, p < 0.001), depression (RRadj = 1.31, p < 0.001), symptom duration > 1 year (RRadj = 1.32, p < 0.001), previous spine surgery (RRadj = 1.32, p < 0.001), and higher baseline numeric rating scale (NRS)–back pain score (RRadj = 1.04, p = 0.002). Conversely, an education level higher than high school graduation, independent ambulation (RRadj = 0.90, p = 0.039), higher baseline NRS–leg pain score (RRadj = 0.97, p = 0.013), and fusion surgery (RRadj = 0.88, p = 0.014) decreased dissatisfaction.

Among 2776 patients with a 2-year follow-up, 22% reported dissatisfaction postoperatively. Dissatisfaction was predicted by a non-white race, current smoking (RRadj = 1.26, p = 0.004), depression (RRadj = 1.34, p < 0.001), symptom duration > 1 year (RRadj = 1.47, p < 0.001), previous spine surgery (RRadj = 1.28, p < 0.001), and higher baseline NRS–back pain score (RRadj = 1.06, p = 0.003). Conversely, at least some college education (RRadj = 0.87, p = 0.035) decreased the risk of dissatisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS

Both comorbid conditions and socioeconomic circumstances must be considered in counseling patients on postoperative expectations. After race, symptom duration was the strongest predictor of dissatisfaction; thus, patient-centered measures must be prioritized. These findings should serve as a tool for surgeons to identify at-risk populations that may need more attention regarding effective communication and additional preoperative counseling to address potential barriers unique to their situation.

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Sung Huang Laurent Tsai, Anshit Goyal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Waseem Wahood, Elizabeth B. Habermann, Terry C. Burns and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

The nature of the volume-outcome relationship in cases with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear, with considerable interhospital variation in patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to understand the state of the volume-outcome relationship at different levels of trauma centers in the United States.

METHODS

The authors queried the National Trauma Data Bank for the years 2007–2014 for patients with severe TBI. Case volumes for each level of trauma center organized into quintiles (Q1–Q5) served as the primary predictor. Analyzed outcomes included in-hospital mortality, total hospital length of stay (LOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Multivariable regression models were performed for in-hospital mortality, overall complications, and total hospital and ICU LOSs to adjust for possible confounders. The analysis was stratified by level designation of the trauma center. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.001 to avoid a type I error due to a large sample size.

RESULTS

A total of 122,445 patients were included. Adjusted analysis did not demonstrate a significant relationship between increasing hospital volume of severe TBI cases and in-hospital mortality, complications, and nonhome hospital discharge disposition among level I–IV trauma centers. However, among level II trauma centers, hospital LOS was longer for the highest volume quintile (adjusted mean difference [MD] for Q5: 2.83 days, 95% CI 1.40–4.26 days, p < 0.001, reference = Q1). For level III and IV trauma centers, both hospital LOS and ICU LOS were longer for the highest volume quintile (adjusted MD for Q5: LOS 4.6 days, 95% CI 2.3–7.0 days, p < 0.001; ICU LOS 3.2 days, 95% CI 1.6–4.8 days, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Higher volumes of severe TBI cases at a lower level of trauma center may be associated with a longer LOS. These results may assist policymakers with target interventions for resource allocation and point to the need for careful prehospital decision-making in patients with severe TBI.

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Sanjeet S. Grewal, Mohammed Ali Alvi, William J. Perkins, Gregory D. Cascino, Jeffrey W. Britton, David B. Burkholder, Elson So, Cheolsu Shin, Richard W. Marsh, Fredric B. Meyer, Gregory A. Worrell and Jamie J. Van Gompel

OBJECTIVE

Almost 30% of the patients with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have normal results on MRI. Success rates for resection of MRI-negative TLE are less favorable, ranging from 36% to 76%. Herein the authors describe the impact of intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) augmented by opioid activation and its effect on postoperative seizure outcome.

METHODS

Adult and pediatric patients with medically resistant MRI-negative TLE who underwent standardized ECoG at the time of their elective anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with amygdalohippocampectomy between 1990 and 2016 were included in this study. Seizure recurrence comprised the primary outcome of interest and was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analysis plots based on distribution of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) recorded on scalp electroencephalography, baseline and opioid-induced IEDs on ECoG, and extent of resection.

RESULTS

Of the 1144 ATLs performed at the authors’ institution between 1990 and 2016, 127 (11.1%) patients (81 females) with MRI-negative TLE were eligible for this study. Patients with complete resection of tissue generating IED recorded on intraoperative ECoG were less likely to have seizure recurrence compared to those with incomplete resection on univariate analysis (p < 0.05). No difference was found in seizure recurrence between patients with bilateral independent IEDs and unilateral IEDs (p = 0.15), presence or absence of opioid-induced epileptiform activation (p = 0.61), or completeness of resection of tissue with opioid-induced IEDs on intraoperative ECoG (p = 0.41).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors found that incomplete resection of IED-generating tissue on intraoperative ECoG was associated with an increased chance of seizure recurrence. However, they found that induction of epileptiform activity with intraoperative opioid activation did not provide useful intraoperative data predictive of improving operative results for temporal lobectomy in MRI-negative epilepsy.

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Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Daniel S. Ubl, Kristine T. Hanson, William E. Krauss, Fredric B. Meyer, Robert J. Spinner, Elizabeth B. Habermann and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Patient-reported outcomes have been increasingly mandated by regulators and payers to evaluate hospital and physician performance. The purpose of this study is to delineate the differences in patient-reported experience of hospital care for cranial and spinal operations.

METHODS

The authors selected all patients who underwent inpatient, elective cranial or spinal procedures and completed the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey at a single, high-volume, tertiary care institution between October 2012 and September 2015. The association of the surgical procedure and diagnosis with various HCAHPS composite measures, calculated across 9 domains using standard top-box methodology, was investigated. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted for outcomes that were significant with procedure type and diagnosis group on univariate analysis, adjusting for age, sex, case complexity, overall health rating, and education level.

RESULTS

A total of 1484 patients met criteria and returned an HCAHPS survey. Overall, patients undergoing a cranial procedure gave top-box (most favorable) scores more often in pain management measure (66.3% vs 59.6%, p = 0.01) compared with those undergoing spine surgery. Furthermore, despite better discharge scores (93.1% vs 87.1%, p < 0.001), spinal patients were less likely to report excellent health (7.4% vs 12.7%). Lastly, patients with a primary diagnosis of brain or spinal tumor compared with those with degenerative spinal disease and those with other neurosurgical diagnoses provided top-box scores more often regarding communication with doctors (82.7% vs 76.4% vs 75.2%, p = 0.04), pain management (71.8% vs 60.9% vs 59.1%, p = 0.002), and global rating (90.4% vs 84.0% vs 87.3%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, spinal patients had significantly lower odds of reporting top-box scores in pain management (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52–0.85; p = 0.001), staff responsiveness (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87; p = 0.002), and global rating (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42–0.82; p = 0.002), and significantly higher odds of top-box scoring in discharge information (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.45–3.18; p < 0.001) than cranial patients. Similarly, brain tumor cases were associated with significantly higher odds of top-box scoring in communication with doctors (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01–2.12; p = 0.04), pain management (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29–2.55; p < 0.001), staff responsiveness (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.33–2.66; p < 0.001), and global rating (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.26–3.17; p = 0.003) compared with degenerative spine cases.

CONCLUSIONS

Significant differences in patient-reported experience with hospital care exist across different cranial and spine surgery patient populations. Overall, spinal patients, particularly those with degenerative spine disease, rated their health and their hospital experience lower relative to cranial patients. Identifying weaker areas of hospital performance in target populations can stimulate quality initiatives that aim to increase the overall hospital score.