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Open access

Visish M. Srinivasan, Joshua S. Catapano, John P. Sheehy, Mohamed A. Labib, and Michael T. Lawton

Falcotentorial meningiomas arise along the junction of the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli. The authors present a woman in her 60s with an incidentally discovered falcotentorial meningioma, approximately 3 cm in diameter, resected with a torcular craniotomy and posterior interhemispheric approach. The galenic complex was dissected away from the tumor. In the final view, the bilateral internal cerebral veins and basal veins of Rosenthal were seen. A Simpson grade I resection was achieved. The patient experienced transient contralateral hemianopsia and was discharged home. At 1-year follow-up, her neurological examination findings were unremarkable, and there was no radiographic evidence of tumor.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.4.FOCVID2125.

Open access

Sirin Gandhi, Tsinsue Chen, Justin R. Mascitelli, Claudio Cavallo, Mohamed A. Labib, Michael J. Lang, and Michael T. Lawton

This video illustrates a contralateral supracerebellar transtentorial (cSCTT) approach for resection of a ruptured thalamic cavernous malformation in a 56-year-old woman with progressive right-sided homonymous hemianopsia. The patient was placed in the sitting position, and a torcular craniotomy was performed for the cSCTT approach. The lesion was resected completely. Postoperatively, the patient had intact motor strength and baseline visual field deficits with moderate right-sided paresthesias. The cSCTT approach maximizes the lateral surgical reach without the cortical transgression seen with alternative transcortical routes. Contralaterality is a defining feature, with entry of the neurosurgeon’s instruments from the craniotomy edge of the craniotomy, contralateral to the lesion, allowing access to the lateral aspect of the lesion. The sitting position facilitates gravity-assisted cerebellar retraction and enhances the superior reach of this approach (Used with permission from Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona).

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/lqB9mu_T8NQ.

Open access

Xiaochun Zhao, Robert T. Wicks, Evgenii Belykh, Colin J. Przybylowski, Mohamed A. Labib, and Peter Nakaji

Neurocysticercosis is primarily managed with anthelminthic, antiepileptic, and corticosteroid therapies. Surgical removal of the larval cyst is indicated when associated mass effect causes neurological symptoms, as demonstrated in two cases. Cyst resection was achieved via the far lateral approach for a cervicomedullary cyst in one patient and via the subtemporal approach for a mesencephalic cyst in another. The cyst wall should be kept intact, when possible, to avoid dissemination of the inflammation-evoking contents. As the contents are usually semisolid and can be removed via suction, it is not necessary to remove the gliotic capsule or adherent portions of the cyst wall in highly eloquent locations.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/GqbaJu5sy1o.

Free access

Xiaochun Zhao, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Mohamed A. Labib, Sirin Gandhi, Evgenii Belykh, Komal Naeem, Mark C. Preul, Peter Nakaji, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Aneurysms that arise on the medial surface of the paraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are surgically challenging. The contralateral interoptic trajectory, which uses the space between the optic nerves, can partially expose the medial surface of the paraclinoid ICA. In this study, the authors quantitatively measure the area of the medial ICA accessible through the interoptic triangle and propose a potential patient-selection algorithm that is based on preoperative measurements on angiographic imaging.

METHODS

The contralateral interoptic trajectory was studied on 10 sides of 5 cadaveric heads, through which the medial paraclinoid ICA was identified. The falciform ligament medial to the contralateral optic canal was incised, the contralateral optic nerve was gently elevated, and the medial surface of the paraclinoid ICA was inspected via different viewing angles to obtain maximal exposure. The accessible area on the carotid artery was outlined. The distance from the distal dural ring (DDR) to the proximal and distal borders of this accessible area was measured. The superior and inferior borders were measured using the clockface method relative to a vertical line on the coronal plane. To validate these parameters, preoperative measurements and intraoperative findings were reviewed in 8 clinical cases.

RESULTS

In the sagittal plane, the mean (SD) distances from the DDR to the proximal and distal ends of the accessible area on the paraclinoid ICA were 2.5 (1.52) mm and 8.4 (2.32) mm, respectively. In the coronal plane, the mean (SD) angles of the superior and inferior ends of the accessible area relative to a vertical line were 21.7° (14.84°) and 130.9° (12.75°), respectively. Six (75%) of 8 clinical cases were consistent with the proposed patient-selection algorithm.

CONCLUSIONS

The contralateral interoptic approach is a feasible route to access aneurysms that arise from the medial paraclinoid ICA. An aneurysm can be safely clipped via the contralateral interoptic trajectory if 1) both proximal and distal borders of the aneurysm neck are 2.5–8.4 mm distal to the DDR, and 2) at least one border of the aneurysm neck on the coronal clockface is 21.7°–130.9° medial to the vertical line.

Free access

Mohamed A. Labib, Evgenii Belykh, Claudio Cavallo, Xiaochun Zhao, Daniel M. Prevedello, Ricardo L. Carrau, Andrew S. Little, Mauro A. T. Ferreira, Mark C. Preul, A. Samy Youssef, and Peter Nakaji

OBJECTIVE

The ventral jugular foramen and the infrapetrous region are difficult to access through conventional lateral and posterolateral approaches. Endoscopic endonasal approaches to this region are obstructed by the eustachian tube (ET). This study presents a novel strategy for mobilizing the ET while preserving its integrity. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous ET management paradigms are also presented.

METHODS

Ten dry skulls were analyzed. Four ET management strategies were sequentially performed on a total of 6 sides of cadaveric head specimens. Four measurement groups were generated: in group A, the ET was intact and not mobilized; in group B, the ET was mobilized inferolaterally; in group C, the ET underwent anterolateral mobilization; and in group D, the ET was resected. ET range of mobilization, surgical exposure area, and surgical freedom were measured and compared among the groups.

RESULTS

Wide exposure of the infrapetrous region and jugular foramen was achieved by removing the pterygoid process, unroofing the cartilaginous ET up to the level of the posterior aspect of the foramen ovale, and detaching the ET from the skull base and soft palate. Anterolateral mobilization of the ET facilitated significantly more retraction (a 126% increase) of the ET than inferolateral mobilization (mean ± SD: 20.8 ± 11.2 mm vs 9.2 ± 3.6 mm [p = 0.02]). Compared with group A, groups C and D had enhanced surgical exposure (142.5% [1176.9 ± 935.7 mm2] and 155.9% [1242.0 ± 1096.2 mm2], respectively, vs 485.4 ± 377.6 mm2 for group A [both p = 0.02]). Furthermore, group C had a significantly larger surgical exposure area than group B (p = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was found between the area of exposure obtained by ET removal and anterolateral mobilization. Anterolateral mobilization of the ET resulted in a 39.5% increase in surgical freedom toward the exocranial jugular foramen compared with that obtained through inferolateral mobilization of the ET (67.2° ± 20.5° vs 48.1° ± 6.7° [p = 0.047]) and a 65.4% increase compared with that afforded by an intact ET position (67.2° ± 20.5° vs 40.6° ± 14.3° [p = 0.03]).

CONCLUSIONS

Anterolateral mobilization of the ET provides excellent access to the ventral jugular foramen and infrapetrous region. The surgical exposure obtained is superior to that achieved with other ET management strategies and is comparable to that obtained by ET resection.

Restricted access

Joshua S. Catapano, Fabio A. Frisoli, Candice L. Nguyen, Mohamed A. Labib, Tyler S. Cole, Jacob F. Baranoski, Helen Kim, Robert F. Spetzler, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Supplemented Spetzler-Martin grading (Supp-SM), which is the combination of Spetzler-Martin and Lawton-Young grades, was validated as being more accurate than stand-alone Spetzler-Martin grading, but an operability cutoff was not established. In this study, the authors surgically treated intermediate-grade AVMs to provide prognostic factors for neurological outcomes and to define AVMs at the boundary of operability.

METHODS

Surgically treated Supp-SM intermediate-grade (5, 6, and 7) AVMs were analyzed from 2011 to 2018 at two medical centers. Worsened neurological outcomes were defined as increased modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores on postoperative examinations. A second analysis of 2000–2011 data for Supp-SM grade 6 and 7 AVMs was performed to determine the subtypes with improved or unchanged outcomes. Patients were separated into three groups based on nidus size (S1: < 3 cm, S2: 3–6 cm, S3: > 6 cm) and age (A1: < 20 years, A2: 20–40 years, A3: > 40 years), followed by any combination of the combined supplemented grade: low risk (S1A1, S1A2, S2A1), intermediate risk (S2A2, S1A3, S3A1, or high risk (S3A3, S3A2, S2A3).

RESULTS

Two hundred forty-six patients had intermediate Supp-SM grade AVMs. Of these patients, 102 had Supp-SM grade 5 (41.5%), 99 had Supp-SM grade 6 (40.2%), and 45 had Supp-SM grade 7 (18.3%). Significant differences in the proportions of patients with worse mRS scores at follow-up were found between the groups, with 24.5% (25/102) of patients in Supp-SM grade 5, 29.3% (29/99) in Supp-SM grade 6, and 57.8% (26/45) in Supp-SM grade 7 (p < 0.001). Patients with Supp-SM grade 7 AVMs had significantly increased odds of worse postoperative mRS scores (p < 0.001; OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.9–7.3). In the expanded cohort of 349 Supp-SM grade 6 AVM patients, a significantly higher proportion of older patients with larger Supp-SM grade 6 AVMs (grade 6+, 38.6%) had neurological deterioration than the others with Supp-SM grade 6 AVMs (22.9%, p = 0.02). Conversely, in an expanded cohort of 197 Supp-SM grade 7 AVM patients, a significantly lower proportion of younger patients with smaller Supp-SM grade 7 AVMs (grade 7–, 19%) had neurological deterioration than the others with Supp-SM grade 7 AVMs (44.9%, p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with Supp-SM grade 7 AVMs are at increased risk of worse postoperative neurological outcomes, making Supp-SM grade 6 an appropriate operability cutoff. However, young patients with small niduses in the low-risk Supp-SM grade 7 group (grade 7−) have favorable postoperative outcomes. Outcomes in Supp-SM grade 7 patients did not improve with surgeon experience, indicating that the operability boundary is a hard limit reflecting the complexity of high-grade AVMs.

Restricted access

Joshua S. Catapano, Mohamed A. Labib, Fabio A. Frisoli, Megan S. Cadigan, Jacob F. Baranoski, Tyler S. Cole, James J. Zhou, Candice L. Nguyen, Alexander C. Whiting, Andrew F. Ducruet, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The SAFIRE grading scale is a novel, computable scale that predicts the outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients in acute follow-up. However, this scale also may have prognostic significance in long-term follow-up and help guide further management.

METHODS

The records of all patients enrolled in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) were retrospectively reviewed, and the patients were assigned SAFIRE grades. Outcomes at 1 year and 6 years post-aSAH were analyzed for each SAFIRE grade level, with a poor outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale score > 2. Univariate analysis was performed for patients with a high SAFIRE grade (IV or V) for odds of poor outcome at the 1- and 6-year follow-ups.

RESULTS

A total of 405 patients with confirmed aSAH enrolled in the BRAT were analyzed; 357 patients had 1-year follow-up, and 333 patients had 6-year follow-up data available. Generally, as the SAFIRE grade increased, so did the proportion of patients with poor outcomes. At the 1-year follow-up, 18% (17/93) of grade I patients, 22% (20/92) of grade II patients, 32% (26/80) of grade III patients, 43% (38/88) of grade IV patients, and 75% (3/4) of grade V patients were found to have poor outcomes. At the 6-year follow-up, 29% (23/79) of grade I patients, 24% (21/89) of grade II patients, 38% (29/77) of grade III patients, 60% (50/84) of grade IV patients, and 100% (4/4) of grade V patients were found to have poor outcomes. Univariate analysis showed that a SAFIRE grade of IV or V was associated with a significantly increased risk of a poor outcome at both the 1-year (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5–4.2; p < 0.001) and 6-year (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.2–6.2; p < 0.001) follow-ups.

CONCLUSIONS

High SAFIRE grades are associated with an increased risk of a poor recovery at late follow-up.

Free access

Joshua S. Catapano, Andrew F. Ducruet, Fabio A. Frisoli, Candice L. Nguyen, Christopher E. Louie, Mohamed A. Labib, Jacob F. Baranoski, Tyler S. Cole, Alexander C. Whiting, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that female patients presenting with a poor clinical grade are at the greatest risk for developing TC. Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) are known to support cardiac function in severe cases of TC, and they may aid in the treatment of vasospasm in these patients. In this study, the authors investigated risk factors for developing TC in the setting of aSAH and outcomes among patients requiring IABPs.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 1096 patients who had presented to their institution with aSAH. Four hundred five of these patients were originally enrolled in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial, and an additional 691 patients from a subsequent prospectively maintained aSAH database were analyzed. Medical records were reviewed for the presence of TC according to the modified Mayo Clinic criteria. Outcomes were determined at the last follow-up, with a poor outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score > 2.

RESULTS

TC was identified in 26 patients with aSAH. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis identified female sex (OR 8.2, p = 0.005), Hunt and Hess grade > III (OR 7.6, p < 0.001), aneurysm size > 7 mm (OR 3, p = 0.011), and clinical vasospasm (OR 2.9, p = 0.037) as risk factors for developing TC in the setting of aSAH. TC patients, even with IABP placement, had higher rates of poor outcomes (77% vs 47% with an mRS score > 2, p = 0.004) and mortality at the last follow-up (27% vs 11%, p = 0.018) than the non-TC patients. However, aggressive intra-arterial endovascular treatment for vasospasm was associated with good outcomes in the TC patients versus nonaggressive treatment (100% with mRS ≤ 2 at last follow-up vs 53% with mRS > 2, p = 0.040).

CONCLUSIONS

TC after aSAH tends to occur in female patients with large aneurysms, poor clinical grades, and clinical vasospasm. These patients have significantly higher rates of poor neurological outcomes, even with the placement of an IABP. However, aggressive intra-arterial endovascular therapy in select patients with vasospasm may improve outcome.

Restricted access

Mohamed A. Labib, Xiaochun Zhao, Lena Mary Houlihan, Irakliy Abramov, Joshua S. Catapano, Komal Naeem, Mark C. Preul, A. Samy Youssef, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The combined petrosal (CP) approach has been traditionally used to resect petroclival meningioma (PCM). The pretemporal transcavernous anterior petrosal (PTAP) approach has emerged as an alternative. A quantitative comparison of both approaches has not been made. This anatomical study compared the surgical corridors afforded by both approaches and identified key elements of the approach selection process.

METHODS

Twelve cadaveric specimens were dissected, and 10 were used for morphometric analysis. Groups A and B (n = 5 in each) underwent the CP and PTAP approaches, respectively. The area of drilled clivus, lengths of cranial nerves (CNs) II–X, length of posterior circulation vessels, surgical area of exposure of the brainstem, and angles of attack anterior and posterior to a common target were measured and compared.

RESULTS

The area of drilled clivus was significantly greater in group A than group B (mean ± SD 88.7 ± 17.1 mm2 vs 48.4 ± 17.9 mm2, p < 0.01). Longer segments of ipsilateral CN IV (52.4 ± 2.33 mm vs 46.5 ± 3.71 mm, p < 0.02), CN IX, and CN X (9.91 ± 3.21 mm vs 0.00 ± 0.00 mm, p < 0.01) were exposed in group A than group B. Shorter portions of CN II (9.31 ± 1.28 mm vs 17.6 ± 6.89 mm, p < 0.02) and V1 (26.9 ± 4.62 mm vs 32.4 ± 1.93 mm, p < 0.03) were exposed in group A than group B. Longer segments of ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) were exposed in group A than group B (36.0 ± 4.91 mm vs 25.8 ± 3.55 mm, p < 0.02), but there was less exposure of contralateral SCA (0.00 ± 0.00 mm vs 7.95 ± 3.33 mm, p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between groups with regard to the combined area of the exposed cerebral peduncles and pons (p = 0.75). Although exposure of the medulla was limited, group A had significantly greater exposure of the medulla than group B (p < 0.01). Finally, group A had a smaller anterior angle of attack than group B (24.1° ± 5.62° vs 34.8° ± 7.51°, p < 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to quantitatively identify the advantages and limitations of the CP and PTAP approaches from an anatomical perspective. Understanding these data will aid in designing maximally effective yet minimally invasive approaches to PCM.

Free access

Joshua S. Catapano, Andrew F. Ducruet, Fabio A. Frisoli, Candice L. Nguyen, Christopher E. Louie, Mohamed A. Labib, Jacob F. Baranoski, Tyler S. Cole, Alexander C. Whiting, Felipe C. Albuquerque, and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that female patients presenting with a poor clinical grade are at the greatest risk for developing TC. Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) are known to support cardiac function in severe cases of TC, and they may aid in the treatment of vasospasm in these patients. In this study, the authors investigated risk factors for developing TC in the setting of aSAH and outcomes among patients requiring IABPs.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 1096 patients who had presented to their institution with aSAH. Four hundred five of these patients were originally enrolled in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial, and an additional 691 patients from a subsequent prospectively maintained aSAH database were analyzed. Medical records were reviewed for the presence of TC according to the modified Mayo Clinic criteria. Outcomes were determined at the last follow-up, with a poor outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score > 2.

RESULTS

TC was identified in 26 patients with aSAH. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis identified female sex (OR 8.2, p = 0.005), Hunt and Hess grade > III (OR 7.6, p < 0.001), aneurysm size > 7 mm (OR 3, p = 0.011), and clinical vasospasm (OR 2.9, p = 0.037) as risk factors for developing TC in the setting of aSAH. TC patients, even with IABP placement, had higher rates of poor outcomes (77% vs 47% with an mRS score > 2, p = 0.004) and mortality at the last follow-up (27% vs 11%, p = 0.018) than the non-TC patients. However, aggressive intra-arterial endovascular treatment for vasospasm was associated with good outcomes in the TC patients versus nonaggressive treatment (100% with mRS ≤ 2 at last follow-up vs 53% with mRS > 2, p = 0.040).

CONCLUSIONS

TC after aSAH tends to occur in female patients with large aneurysms, poor clinical grades, and clinical vasospasm. These patients have significantly higher rates of poor neurological outcomes, even with the placement of an IABP. However, aggressive intra-arterial endovascular therapy in select patients with vasospasm may improve outcome.