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Toshikazu Nishioka, Hiroyuki Nakase, Mitsutoshi Nakamura, Noboru Konishi, and Toshisuke Sakaki


The two-vein occlusion model is known to be useful for ischemic penumbra studies in vivo. It was applied here to examine sequential changes in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins and in apoptotic cells to assess the relationship between penumbra and apoptosis.


Two cortical veins were occluded photochemically by using rose bengal dye in 27 Wistar rats. The animals were killed with perfusion fixation at the following intervals: 4, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 168 hours after vein occlusion (four at each interval; three additional rats were sham-treated). Immunohistochemical analysis for the Bcl-2 family of proteins was performed along with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay to examine the relationship to single-cell death.

Cells positive for antiapoptotic proteins began to appear in the TUNEL assay for animals killed 24 hours after vein occlusion, with a peak at 48 hours. These cells were localized in the core of infarction. Immunohistochemical staining for Bax protein showed an increased presence around ischemic lesions at 4 hours after vein occlusion, and the amounts continued to rise until 24 hours, when the localization was diffuse around the core of infarction. Negative findings on immunohistochemical studies for Bcl-2 protein were seen at the early phase after two-vein occlusion.


After vein occlusion, apoptosis appeared sequentially and widely in cortical lesions considered to be the penumbra. Therefore, control of apoptosis would be expected to offer a therapeutic window for treatment of venous infarction.

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Yasushi Motoyama, Tsukasa Nakajima, Yoshiaki Takamura, Tsutomu Nakazawa, Daisuke Wajima, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Ryosuke Matsuda, Kentaro Tamura, Shuichi Yamada, Hiroshi Yokota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Mitsutoshi Nakamura, and Hiroyuki Nakase


Lumbar spinal drainage (LSD) during neurosurgery can have an important effect by facilitating a smooth procedure when needed. However, LSD is quite invasive, and the pathology of brain herniation associated with LSD has become known recently. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of postoperative brain herniation after craniotomy with LSD in neurosurgery overall.


Included were 239 patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD for various types of neurological diseases between January 2007 and December 2016. The authors performed propensity score matching to establish a proper control group taken from among 1424 patients who underwent craniotomy and met the inclusion criteria during the same period. The incidences of postoperative brain herniation between the patients who underwent craniotomy with LSD (group A, n = 239) and the matched patients who underwent craniotomy without LSD (group B, n = 239) were compared.


Brain herniation was observed in 24 patients in group A and 8 patients in group B (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.36–8.46, p = 0.005), but the rate of favorable outcomes was higher in group A (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18–2.76, p = 0.005). Of the 24 patients, 18 had uncal herniation, 5 had central herniation, and 1 had uncal and subfalcine herniation; 8 patients with other than subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Significant differences in the rates of deep approach (OR 5.12, 95% CI 1.8–14.5, p = 0.002) and temporal craniotomy (OR 10.2, 95% CI 2.3–44.8, p = 0.002) were found between the 2 subgroups (those with and those without herniation) in group A. In 5 patients, brain herniation proceeded even after external decompression (ED). Cox regression analysis revealed that the risk of brain herniation related to LSD increased with ED (hazard ratio 3.326, 95% CI 1.491–7.422, p < 0.001). Among all 1424 patients, ED resulted in progression or deterioration of brain herniation more frequently in those who underwent LSD than it did in those who did not undergo LSD (OR 9.127, 95% CI 1.82–62.1, p = 0.004).


Brain herniation downward to the tentorial hiatus is more likely to occur after craniotomy with LSD than after craniotomy without LSD. Using a deep approach and craniotomy involving the temporal areas are risk factors for brain herniation related to LSD. Additional ED would aggravate brain herniation after LSD. The risk of brain herniation after placement of a lumbar spinal drain during neurosurgery must be considered even when LSD is essential.