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E-Jian Lee, Yu-Chang Hung and Ming-Yang Lee

Object. The authors sought to ascertain the nature of the hemodynamic and metabolic derangement underlying acute pathophysiological events that occur after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), flow velocity (FV) of the middle cerebral artery, and the arteriovenous contents of oxygen and lactate were investigated in 24 dogs subjected to sham operations (Group A, four animals) or intracerebral injections of 3 ml (Group B, 11 animals) or 5 ml (Group C, nine animals) autologous arterial blood. Twelve additional dogs received intravenous injections of 2% Evans blue or trypan blue dye to evaluate blood-brain barrier (BBB) changes. Within 1 hour, animals with ICH exhibited a rise in FV associated with significant reductions (p < 0.05) in CPP and the arteriovenous content difference (AVDO2). In Group C animals significant increases in lactate concentration were found in arterial and superior sagittal sinus (SSS) samples compared with those in the other two groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, perihematomal dye extravasation was observed in animals subjected to ICH and trypan blue dye injections, with profound and mild leakages in Group C and Group B animals, respectively, but not in Group A and Evans blue dye—injected animals. During the subsequent 4 hours, the FV and AVDO2 returned to normal in Group B animals, indicating a balanced cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) compared with a deranged CMRO2 in Group C animals due to their lowered FV and AVDO2. However, no coupling increase in brain lactate clearance in Group C animals accounted for either the early lactate elevation in SSS or the decrease in CMRO2.

Conclusions. Profound reductions in CPP and brain oxygenation after ICH may rapidly exhaust hemodynamic compensation and, thus, impede cerebral homeostasis; however, these reductions only modestly enhance anaerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, the data suggest that a selective increase in permeability, rather than anatomical disruption, of the BBB is involved in the acute pathophysiological events that occur after ICH, which may provide a possible gateway for systemic arterial lactate entering the SSS.

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E-Jian Lee, Ming-Yang Lee, Guan-Liang Chang, Li-Hsuan Chen, Yu-Ling Hu, Tsung-Ying Chen and Tian-Shung Wu

Object. The authors examined whether delayed treatment with Mg++ would reduce brain infarction and improve electrophysiological and neurobehavioral recovery following cerebral ischemia—reperfusion.

Methods. Male Sprague—Dawley rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes followed by 72 hours of reperfusion. Magnesium sulfate (750 µmol/kg) or vehicle was given via intracarotid infusion at the beginning of reperfusion. Neurobehavioral outcome and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were examined before and 72 hours after ischemia—reperfusion. Brain infarction was assessed after the rats had died.

Before ischemia—reperfusion, stable SSEP waveforms were recorded after individual fore- and hindpaw stimulations. At 72 hours of perfusion the SSEPs recorded from ischemic fore- and hindpaw cortical fields were depressed in vehicle-injected animals and the amplitudes decreased to 19 and 27% of baseline, respectively (p < 0.001). Relative to controls, the amplitudes of SSEPs recorded from both ischemic fore- and hindpaw cortical field in the Mg++-treated animals were significantly improved by 23% (p < 0.005) and 39% (p < 0.001) of baselines, respectively. In addition, Mg++ improved sensory and motor neurobehavioral outcomes by 34% (p < 0.01) and 24% (p < 0.05), respectively, and reduced cortical (p < 0.05) and striatal (p < 0.05) infarct sizes by 42 and 36%, respectively.

Conclusions. Administration of Mg++ at the commencement of reperfusion enhances electrophysiological and neurobehavioral recovery and reduces brain infarction after cerebral ischemia—reperfusion. Because Mg++ has already been used clinically, it may be worthwhile to investigate it further to see if it holds potential benefits for patients with ischemic stroke and for those who will undergo carotid endarterectomy.

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Swei-Ming Lin, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Jiao-Chiao Yang and Chi-Cheng Tu

Object

The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of so-called chimney sublaminar decompression, a new technique to decompress the degenerative stenotic lumbar spinal canal without stripping of the paravertebral muscles.

Methods

Eighteen patients (nine men and nine women whose mean age was 67 years) with symptoms of claudication were selected to undergo chimney sublaminar decompression. The duration of symptoms was greater than 6 months in 17 patients. Two lumbar segments were involved in seven patients, three in eight, and four in the remaining three patients. Central canal stenosis was present in 13 patients, and lateral recess stenosis in five patients. Mild spondylolisthesis was noted in seven patients. All the patients underwent chimney sublaminar decompression.

After surgery, mild wound pain developed in 14 patients, moderate wound pain in two, and severe wound pain in two. The postoperative hospital stay was 4 days or fewer in 14 patients. At follow-up examination, excellent, good, and fair outcomes were achieved in 11, five, and two patients, respectively. No patient required a body brace, and no worsening of preexisting spondylolisthesis was detected. The spinal canal was increased to two- to 6.8-fold (mean 4.2-fold) the preoperative size.

Conclusions

Compared with laminectomy or endoscopic surgery, the aforementioned chimney sublaminar decompression technique was an equally effective and less invasive technique in the treatment of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis.

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Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, Ming-Chao Huang, Yun-An Tsai, Yu-Chun Chen, Yang-Hsin Shih and Henrich Cheng

Object

In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a new surgical strategy for reconnecting the injured brachial plexus with the spinal cord using fibrin glue containing acidic fibroblast growth factor as an adhesive and neurotrophic agent.

Methods

Eighteen patients with preganglionic brachial plexus injuries, each with varying degrees of upper limb dysfunction, underwent cervical laminectomy with or without sural nerve grafting. The treatment of each avulsed root varied according to the severity of the injury. Some patients also underwent a second-stage operation involving supraclavicular brachial plexus exploration for reconnection with the corresponding segment of cervical spinal cord at the trunk level. Muscle strength was graded both pre- and postoperatively with the British Medical Research Council scale, and the results were analyzed with the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.

Results

Muscle strength improvements were observed in 16 of the 18 patients after 24 months of follow-up. Significant improvements in mean muscle strength were observed in patients from all repair method groups at 12 and 24 months postoperatively (p < 0.05). Statistical significance was not reached in the groups with insufficient numbers of cases.

Conclusions

The authors' new surgical strategy yielded clinical improvement in muscle strength after preganglionic brachial plexus injury, such that nerve regeneration may have taken place. Reconnection of the brachial plexus to the cervical spinal cord is possible. Functional motor recovery, observed through increases in Medical Research Council–rated muscle strength in the affected arm, is likewise possible.

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Tzu-Ming Yang, Wei-Che Lin, Wen-Neng Chang, Jih-Tsun Ho, Hung-Chen Wang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Yi-Ting Shih and Cheng-Hsien Lu

Object

Seizures are an important neurological complication of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A better understanding of the risk factors of seizures following ICH is needed to predict which patients will require treatment.

Methods

Two hundred and forty-three adult patients were enrolled in this 1-year retrospective study. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline clinical factors and the presence or absence of seizure during the study period.

Results

Seizures occurred in 20 patients with ICH, including acute symptomatic seizures in 9 and unprovoked seizures in 11. None progressed to status epilepticus during hospitalization. After a minimum 3-year follow-up period, the mean Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 3.8 ± 1.1 for patients who had had seizures and 3.5 ± 1.3 for those who had not. The multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that the mean ICH volume was independently associated with seizures, and any increase of 1 mm3 in ICH volume increased the seizure rate by 2.7%.

Conclusions

Higher mean ICH volumes at presentation were predictive of seizure, and the presence of late seizures was predictive of developing epilepsy. Most seizures occurred within 2 years of spontaneous ICH over a minimum of 3 years of follow-up.

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Fu-Chou Cheng, Ming-Hong Tai, Meei-Ling Sheu, Chun-Jung Chen, Dar-Yu Yang, Hong-Lin Su, Shu-Peng Ho, Shu-Zhen Lai and Hung-Chuan Pan

Object

Human amniotic fluid–derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) have been shown to promote peripheral nerve regeneration, and the local delivery of neurotrophic factors may additionally enhance nerve regeneration capacity. The present study evaluates whether the transplantation of glia cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)–modified human AFMSCs may enhance regeneration of sciatic nerve after a crush injury.

Methods

Peripheral nerve injury was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the left sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Either GDNF-modified human AFMSCs or human AFMSCs were embedded in Matrigel and delivered to the injured nerve. Motor function and electrophysiological studies were conducted after 1 and 4 weeks. Early or later nerve regeneration markers were used to evaluate nerve regeneration. The expression of GDNF in the transplanted human AFMSCs and GDNF-modified human AFMSCs was monitored at 7-day intervals.

Results

Human AFMSCs were successfully transfected with adenovirus, and a significant amount of GDNF was detected in human AFMSCs or the culture medium supernatant. Increases in the sciatic nerve function index, the compound muscle action potential ratio, conduction latency, and muscle weight were found in the groups treated with human AFMSCs or GDNF-modified human AFMSCs. Importantly, the GDNF-modified human AFMSCs induced the greatest improvement. Expression of markers of early nerve regeneration, such as increased expression of neurofilament and BrdU and reduced Schwann cell apoptosis, as well as late regeneration markers, consisting of reduced vacuole counts, increased expression of Luxol fast blue and S100 protein, paralleled the results of motor function. The expression of GDNF in GDNF-modified human AFMSCs was demonstrated up to 4 weeks; however, the expression decreased over time.

Conclusions

The GDNF-modified human AFMSCs appeared to promote nerve regeneration. The consecutive expression of GDNF was demonstrated in GDNF-modified human AFMSCs up to 4 weeks. These findings support a nerve regeneration scenario involving cell transplantation with additional neurotrophic factor secretion.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010

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Hung-Chuan Pan, Ming-Hsi Sun, Jason Sheehan, Meei-Ling Sheu, Clayton Chi-Chang Chen, Hsu-Tung Lee, Wen-Ta Chiu and Dar-Yu Yang

Object

In the modern era, stereotactic radiosurgery is an important part of the multidisciplinary and multimodality approach used to treat dural carotid-cavernous fistulas (DCCFs). Based on the ease of performance of techniques to fuse cerebral angiography studies with MR images or CT scans during the radiosurgical procedure, the Gamma Knife and XKnife are 2 of the most popular radiosurgical instruments for patients with DCCF. In this study, the authors compared the efficacy, neurological results, and complications associated with these 2 radiosurgical devices when used for DCCF.

Methods

Records for 41 patients with DCCF (15 treated using the XKnife and 26 with Gamma Knife surgery [GKS]) were retrieved from a radiosurgical database encompassing the period of September 2000 to August 2008. Among these patients, at least 2 consecutive MR imaging or MR angiography studies obtained after radiosurgery were available for determining radiological outcome of the fistula. All patients received regular follow-up to evaluate the neurological and ophthalmological function at an interval of 1–3 months. The symptomatology, obliteration rate, radiation dose, instrument accuracy, and adverse effects were determined for each group and compared between 2 groups. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test.

Results

The mean age of the patients was 63 ± 2.6 years, and the mean follow-up period was 63.1 ± 4.4 months (mean ± SD). Thirty-seven patients (90%) achieved an obliteration of the DCCF (93% in the XKnife cohort and 88% for the GKS cohort). In 34 of 40 patients (85%) with chemosis and proptosis of the eyes, these symptoms were resolved after treatment (4 had residual fistula and 2 had arterializations of sclera). All 5 patients with high intraocular pressure demonstrated clinical improvement. Ten (71%) of 14 patients with cranial nerve palsy demonstrated improvement following radiosurgery. Significant discrepancies of treatment modalities existed between the XKnife and GKS groups, such as radiation volume, conformity index, number of isocenters, instrument accuracy, peripheral isodose line, and maximum dosage. The XKnife delivered significantly higher radiation dosage to the lens, optic nerve, optic chiasm, bilateral temporal lobe, and brainstem. Few adverse events occurred, but included 1 patient with optic neuritis (GKS group), 1 intracranial hemorrhage (XKnife group), 1 brainstem edema (XKnife), and 3 temporal lobe radiation edemas (XKnife).

Conclusions

Radiosurgery affords a substantial chance of radiological and clinical improvement in patients with DCCFs. The Gamma Knife and XKnife demonstrated similar efficacy in the obliteration of DCCFs. However, a slightly higher incidence of complications occurred in the XKnife group.

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Kuan-Wen Wu, Ming-Hsiao Hu, Shier-Chieg Huang, Ken N. Kuo and Shu-Hua Yang

Although ganglionic cysts located at the hip joint are described infrequently, those found in this region are usually small, deep-seated, and asymptomatic. Occasionally, however, a large ganglionic cyst of the hip area is observed that becomes symptomatic following compression of adjacent neurovascular bundles. In this report, the authors describe a 51-year-old man with symptoms of sciatica caused by a giant ganglionic cyst of the posterior hip joint. Because of its intermuscular location, the cyst was not palpable, and was probably misdiagnosed previously as a herniated disc of the lumbar spine. After resection of the cyst, the patient's symptoms resolved completely. This case highlights the importance of a detailed clinical examination for patients with multiple degenerative joint diseases.

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Ming-liang Yang, Jian-jun Li, Shao-cheng Zhang, Liang-jie Du, Feng Gao, Jun Li, Yu-ming Wang, Hui-ming Gong and Liang Cheng

The authors report a case of functional improvement of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization using a functional spinal accessory nerve. Complete spinal cord injury at the C-2 level was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man. Left diaphragm activity was decreased, and the right diaphragm was completely paralyzed. When the level of metabolism or activity (for example, fever, sitting, or speech) slightly increased, dyspnea occurred. The patient underwent neurotization of the right phrenic nerve with the trapezius branch of the right spinal accessory nerve at 11 months postinjury. Four weeks after surgery, training of the synchronous activities of the trapezius muscle and inspiration was conducted. Six months after surgery, motion was observed in the previously paralyzed right diaphragm. The lung function evaluation indicated improvements in vital capacity and tidal volume. This patient was able to sit in a wheelchair and conduct outdoor activities without assisted ventilation 12 months after surgery.