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Chang Ju Hwang, Choon-Ki Lee, Bong-Soon Chang, Min-Seok Kim, Jin S. Yeom and Jin-Man Choi

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate after more than 5 years the outcome of surgical treatment for flexible idiopathic scoliosis using skipped pedicle screw fixation.

Methods

For patients with spine curves < 90° and flexibility > 20%, pedicle screws had been inserted into every other segment on the corrective side and 2–4 screws per curve had been inserted on the supportive side. The authors analyzed the results in 57 patients, including the correction rate of coronal curvature and rotational deformity, correction loss, sagittal balance, complications, blood loss, operation time, and implant costs.

Results

The mean Cobb angle was 54° preoperatively and 17° immediately after surgery (69% correction). At the last follow-up, the mean Cobb angle was 18° (2% correction loss). Rotation of the apical vertebra was corrected by 50% on average and showed only a 6% correction loss at the last follow-up. None of the patients had problems in maintaining sagittal balance. An adding-on phenomenon was detected in 4 patients (7%). Twelve of 14 patients with coronal decompensation showed improvement after surgery, whereas postoperative decompensation developed in 3 patients. Four patients had implant failures, and 4 had postoperative infections. The mean blood loss during surgery was 832 ml, and the mean operation time was 167 minutes. Compared with conventional methods, the authors' method used up to 48% fewer screws.

Conclusions

Skipped pedicle screw fixation of flexible idiopathic scoliosis showed satisfactory results. This method has several advantages, including reduced blood loss, shorter operation time, and reduced cost.

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Min A. Yoon, Eunhee Kim, Bae-Ju Kwon, Jeong Eun Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Jae Hyo Park, Chul-Ho Sohn, Ji-Hoon Kim and Dong Hoon Lee

Object

Reinforcement of aneurysms with additional wrapping is an alternative procedure if the aneurysm cannot be completely clipped. Wrapping with muslin (cotton gauze) rarely incites foreign body inflammatory reactions. In this study, the authors describe the clinical and radiological features of muslinomas or muslin-induced foreign body reactions that can develop after treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

Methods

Over a 3-year period, 5 patients with muslinomas underwent treatment at the authors' institution. All patients underwent aneursym clipping and wrapping, and were subsequently readmitted with acute or subacute neurological symptoms. Clinical and imaging features on diffusion weighted MR images and cerebral angiography images were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' clinical course and follow-up imaging studies were also evaluated.

Results

In all 5 cases, muslinomas were seen as rim-enhancing inflammatory masses around the clipped aneurysms with perilesional edema visible on MR images at the time of clinical deterioration. The MR images also demonstrated adhesive arachnoiditis with a sterile intracranial abscess in 3 patients, optic neuropathy in 2, parent artery narrowing in 2, and a resultant acute ischemic infarction in 1 patient. Follow-up imaging revealed resolution of both the perilesional edema and adhesive arachnoiditis but no significant changes in the muslinomas. All patients underwent conservative management and fully recovered, but during the follow-up period, 2 patients experienced clinical and radiological relapses.

Conclusions

When a patient with a history of wrapping of an aneurysm presents with acute neurological symptoms and an enhancing intracranial mass in the region of the surgical site on MR imaging, a muslin-induced foreign body inflammatory reaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and careful clinical and radiological follow-up is advised.

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Hyunwook Kwon, Dae Hyuk Moon, Youngjin Han, Jong-Young Lee, Sun U Kwon, Dong-Wha Kang, Suk Jung Choo, Tae-Won Kwon, Min-Ju Kim and Yong-Pil Cho

OBJECTIVE

Controversy persists regarding the optimal management of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) prior to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and the impact of CAD on clinical outcomes after CEA. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term surgical risks and long-term outcomes of patients with subclinical CAD who underwent CEA.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective study of data from a prospective CEA registry. They analyzed a total of 702 cases involving patients without a history of CAD who received preoperative cardiac risk assessment by radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and underwent CEA over a 10-year period. The management strategy (the necessity, sequence, and treatment modality of coronary revascularization and optimal perioperative medical treatment) was determined according to the presence, severity, and extent of CAD as determined by preoperative MPI and additional coronary computed tomography angiography and/or coronary angiography. Perioperative cardiac damage was defined on the basis of postoperative elevation of the blood level of cardiac troponin I (0.05–0.5 ng/ml) in the absence of myocardial ischemia. The primary endpoint was the composite of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the perioperative period and all-cause mortality within 4 years of CEA. The associations between clinical outcomes after CEA and subclinical CAD were analyzed.

RESULTS

Concomitant subclinical CAD was observed in 81 patients (11.5%). These patients did have a higher incidence of perioperative cardiac damage (13.6% vs 0.5%, p < 0.01), but they had similar primary endpoint incidences during the perioperative period (2.5% vs.1.8%, p = 0.65) and similar estimated 4-year primary endpoint rates (13.6% vs 12.4%, p = 0.76) as the patients without subclinical CAD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 2 groups had similar rates of overall survival (p = 0.75).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with subclinical CAD can undergo CEA with acceptable short- and long-term outcomes provided they receive selective coronary revascularization and optimal perioperative medical treatment.

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Eun Ju Lee, Hyun Joo Lee, Min Kyung Hyun, Ji Eun Choi, Jong Hee Kim, Na Rae Lee, Jin Seub Hwang and Jin-Won Kwon

Object

The authors investigated the rupture rate among patients with untreated unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in South Korea during 2006–2009.

Methods

A longitudinal study using national representative health-claim data, including all hospital records for every Korean citizen, was used. Patients with a UIA who were 18–80 years old in 2006 were identified using the I67.1 ICD-10 code. To select eligible patients, a historical period of 1 year prior to the first diagnosis of a UIA in 2006 was utilized. Patients with a previous UIA diagnosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), or treatments, such as clipping or coiling, during the historical period were excluded from analysis. Patients with head trauma or a brain tumor during the historical period were also excluded. Eligible patients were followed up for at least 3 years from the index date. Rupture was defined as SAH events with at least 14 days of hospitalization, using the I60 ICD-10 code and excluding the I60.8 code, or death within 14 days of hospitalization.

Results

Seven thousand four hundred four patients with UIAs were identified, including 1441 treated patients (20%) and 5963 untreated patients (80%), with a median follow-up of 3.3 years. Rupture events occurred in 163 (0.9 cases/100 person-years) of the 5963 untreated patients. The rupture rate was highest in the 1st year after UIA diagnosis. An older age was a risk factor for rupture among patients with UIAs.

Conclusions

The overview of the incidence of rupture indicates the need for a preventive strategy and future studies to prevent rupture in Asian patients with UIAs.

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Nam Ik Cho, Chang Ju Hwang, Ho Yeon Kim, Jong-Min Baik, Youn Suk Joo, Choon Sung Lee, Mi Young Lee, So Jeong Yoon and Dong-Ho Lee

OBJECTIVE

The need for scoliosis screening remains controversial. Nationwide school screening for scoliosis has not been performed in South Korea, and there are few studies on the referral patterns of patients suspected of having scoliosis. This study aimed to examine the referral patterns to the largest scoliosis center in South Korea in the absence of a school screening program and to analyze the factors that influence the appropriateness of referral.

METHODS

The medical records of patients who visited a single scoliosis center for a spinal deformity evaluation were reviewed. Among 1895 new patients who visited this scoliosis center between April 2014 and March 2016, 1211 with presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in the study. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to the referral method: non–health care provider, primary physician, hospital specialist, or school screening program. The appropriateness of referral was labeled as inappropriate, late, or appropriate. In total, 213 of 1211 patients were excluded because they had received treatment at another medical facility; 998 patients were evaluated to determine the appropriateness of referral.

RESULTS

Of the 998 referrals of new patients with presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 162 (16.2%) were classified as an inappropriate referral, 272 (27.3%) were classified as a late referral, and 564 (56.5%) were classified as an appropriate referral. Age, sex, Cobb angle of the major curve, and skeletal maturity were identified as statistically significant factors that correlated with the appropriateness of referral. The referral method did not correlate with the appropriateness of referral.

CONCLUSIONS

Under the current health care system in South Korea, a substantial number of patients with presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are referred either late or inappropriately to a tertiary medical center. Although patients referred by school screening programs had a significantly lower late referral rate and higher appropriate referral rate than the other 3 groups, the referral method was not a significant factor in terms of the appropriateness of referral.