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Jean G. de Oliveira, Carlos R. Massella Jr., Carlos Vanderlei M. de Holanda, Miguel Giudicissi-Filho and Luis A. B. Borba

The recommendation for the great majority of high-grade brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) is observation, except for those patients with recurrent hemorrhages, progressive neurological deficits, steal-related symptoms, or AVM-related aneurysms, for whom intervention should be considered. These are general recommendations, and the decision should be made on an individual basis. Surgical resection of an AVM in the central lobe may cause postoperative sensorimotor deficits since this anatomical region includes the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface.

The authors present a patient with a ruptured high-grade bAVM in the central lobe who underwent previous surgery for hematoma evacuation and previous radiosurgery, and whose indication for reoperation was proposed based on progressive hemiparesis. Microsurgical resection was possible after a wide frontoparietal craniotomy, which made all the nidus borders accessible. This case illustrates the anatomy and surgical technique for large nidus AVMs in eloquent areas, showing that complete microsurgical resection is possible with good clinical outcome.

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Jean G. de Oliveira, Luis A. B. Borba, Aziz Rassi-Neto, Samuel M. de Moura, Santiago L. Sanchez-Júnior, Márcio S. Rassi, Carlos Vanderlei M. de Holanda and Miguel Giudicissi-Filho


Intracranial aneurysms may grow closer to anterior optic pathways, causing mass effect over these anatomical structures, including visual deficit. The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of aneurysms in patients presenting with visual field deficit caused by mass effect, to analyze the aneurysm's characteristics, the neurosurgical management of these aneurysms, as well as their clinical, visual, and radiological outcomes.


The authors reviewed the medical charts, neuroimaging examination results, and surgical videos of 15 patients presenting with visual symptoms caused by an aneurysm's mass effect over the anterior optic pathways. These patients were treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, Center of Neurology and Neurosurgery Associates, Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the variables related to partial or total recovery of the visual symptoms.


All patients underwent microsurgical clip placement and emptying of their aneurysms. After a mean follow-up of 38.5 months, the mean postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4.33, and the visual outcomes were as follows: 1 patient (6.6%) unchanged, 7 (46.6%) improved, and 7 (46.6%) experienced complete recovery from visual deficits. The variables that influenced the visual outcomes were the size of the aneurysm (p = 0.039), duration of the visual symptoms (p = 0.002), aneurysm wall calcification (p = 0.010), and intraluminal thrombosis (p = 0.007). Postoperative examination using digital subtraction angiography showed complete aneurysm occlusion in 14 (93.3%) of the 15 patients.


Intracranial aneurysms causing mass effect over the anterior optic pathways usually present with complex features. The best treatment option must include not only the aneurysm occlusion but also relief of the mass effect. Microsurgical clip placement with reduction of aneurysmal mass effect achieved improvement in visual ability or recovery from visual impairment, as well as total aneurysm occlusion, in 93.3% of the study group. Therefore, this option is well supported as the first choice of treatment for intracranial aneurysms presenting with mass effect over the anterior visual pathways.

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Luis A. B. Borba, João Cândido Araújo, Jean G. de Oliveira, Miguel Giudicissi Filho, Marlus S. Moro, Luis Fernando Tirapelli and Benedicto O. Colli


The goal of this paper is to analyze the extension and relationships of glomus jugulare tumor with the temporal bone and the results of its surgical treatment aiming at preservation of the facial nerve. Based on the tumor extension and its relationships with the facial nerve, new criteria to be used in the selection of different surgical approaches are proposed.


Between December 1997 and December 2007, 34 patients (22 female and 12 male) with glomus jugulare tumors were treated. Their mean age was 48 years. The mean follow-up was 52.5 months. Clinical findings included hearing loss in 88%, swallowing disturbance in 50%, and facial nerve palsy in 41%. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the jugular foramen in all cases, a mass in the middle ear in 97%, a cervical mass in 85%, and an intradural mass in 41%. The tumor was supplied by the external carotid artery in all cases, the internal carotid artery in 44%, and the vertebral artery in 32%. Preoperative embolization was performed in 15 cases. The approach was tailored to each patient, and 4 types of approaches were designed. The infralabyrinthine retrofacial approach (Type A) was used in 32.5%; infralabyrinthine pre- and retrofacial approach without occlusion of the external acoustic meatus (Type B) in 20.5%; infralabyrinthine pre- and retrofacial approach with occlusion of the external acoustic meatus (Type C) in 41%; and the infralabyrinthine approach with transposition of the facial nerve and removal of the middle ear structures (Type D) in 6% of the patients.


Radical removal was achieved in 91% of the cases and partial removal in 9%. Among 20 patients without preoperative facial nerve dysfunction, the nerve was kept in anatomical position in 19 (95%), and facial nerve function was normal during the immediate postoperative period in 17 (85%). Six patients (17.6%) had a new lower cranial nerve deficit, but recovery of swallowing function was adequate in all cases. Voice disturbance remained in all 6 cases. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 6 patients (17.6%), with no need for reoperation in any of them. One patient died in the postoperative period due to pulmonary complications. The global recovery, based on the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), was 100% in 15% of the patients, 90% in 45%, 80% in 33%, and 70% in 6%.


Radical removal of glomus jugulare tumor can be achieved without anterior transposition of the facial nerve. The extension of dissection, however, should be tailored to each case based on tumor blood supply, preoperative symptoms, and tumor extension. The operative field provided by the retrofacial infralabyrinthine approach, or the pre- and retrofacial approaches, with or without closure of the external acoustic meatus, allows a wide exposure of the jugular foramen area. Global functional recovery based on the KPS is acceptable in 94% of the patients.