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Michelle Lin, Michelle A. Wedemeyer, Daniel Bradley, Daniel A. Donoho, Vance L. Fredrickson, Martin H. Weiss, John D. Carmichael and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Rathke’s cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign epithelial lesions of the sellar region typically treated via a transsphenoidal approach with cyst fenestration and drainage. At present, there is limited evidence to guide patient selection for operative treatment. Furthermore, there is minimal literature describing factors contributing to cyst recurrence.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 109 consecutive cases of pathology-confirmed RCCs treated via a transsphenoidal approach at a single center from 1995 to 2016. The majority of cases (86.2%) involved cyst fenestration, drainage, and partial wall resection. Long-term outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 109 surgeries in 100 patients were included, with a mean follow-up duration of 67 months (range 3–220 months). The mean patient age was 44.6 years (range 12–82 years), and 73% were women. The mean maximal cyst diameter was 14.7 mm. Eighty-eight cases (80.7%) were primary operations, and 21 (19.3%) were reoperations. Intraoperative CSF leak repair was performed in 53% of cases and was more common in reoperation cases (71% vs 48%, p < 0.001). There were no new neurological deficits or perioperative deaths. Two patients (1.8%) developed postoperative CSF leaks. Transient diabetes insipidus (DI) developed in 24 cases (22%) and permanent DI developed in 6 (5.5%). Seven cases (6.4%) developed delayed postoperative hyponatremia. Of the 66 patients with preoperative headache, 27 (44.3%) of 61 reported postoperative improvement and 31 (50.8%) reported no change. Of 31 patients with preoperative vision loss, 13 (48.1%) reported subjective improvement and 12 (44.4%) reported unchanged vision. Initial postoperative MRI showed a residual cyst in 25% of cases and no evidence of RCC in 75% of cases. Imaging revealed evidence of RCC recurrence or progression in 29 cases (26.6%), with an average latency of 28.8 months. Of these, only 10 (9.2% of the total 109 cases) were symptomatic and underwent reoperation.

CONCLUSIONS

Transsphenoidal fenestration and drainage of RCCs is a safe and effective intervention for symptomatic lesions, with many patients experiencing improvement of headaches and vision. RCCs show an appreciable (although usually asymptomatic) recurrence rate, thereby mandating serial follow-up. Despite this, full RCC excision is typically not recommended due to risk of hypopituitarism, DI, and CSF leaks.

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Matthew S. Agam, Michelle A. Wedemeyer, Bozena Wrobel, Martin H. Weiss, John D. Carmichael and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are benign neoplasms that are frequently encountered during workup for endocrinopathy, headache, or visual loss. Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first-line approach for PA resection. The authors retrospectively assessed complication rates associated with transsphenoidal PA resection from an institutional database.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis of 1153 consecutive transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections performed at the Keck Hospital of USC between November 1992 and March 2017 was conducted. Microscopic transsphenoidal resection was performed in 85.3% of cases, and endoscopic transsphenoidal resection was performed in 14.7%. Analysis of perioperative complications and patient and tumor risk factors was conducted.

RESULTS

The overall median hospital stay was 3 days. There was 1 perioperative death (0.1%). Surgical complications included postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak (2.6%), epistaxis (1.1%), postoperative hematoma (1.1%), meningitis (1.0%), cranial nerve paresis (0.8%), hydrocephalus (0.8%), vision loss (0.6%), stroke (0.3%), abdominal hematoma or infection (0.2%), carotid artery injury (0.1%), and vegetative state (0.2%). Perioperative medical complications included bacteremia/sepsis (0.5%), pneumonia (0.3%), myocardial infarction (0.3%), and deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (0.1%). Endocrine complications were the most frequent, including transient diabetes insipidus (4.3%), symptomatic hyponatremia (4.2%), new hypopituitarism (any axis) (3.6%), permanent diabetes insipidus (0.3%), and adrenal insufficiency (0.2%). There were no significant differences between microscopic and endoscopic approaches with regard to surgical complications (6.4% vs 8.8%, p = 0.247) or endocrine complications (11.4 vs 11.8%, p = 0.888). Risk factors for surgical complications included prior transsphenoidal surgery (11.4% vs 6.8%, p = 0.025), preoperative vision loss (10.3% vs 6.8%, p = 0.002), and presence of PA invasion on MRI (8.5% vs 4.4%, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

In this single tertiary center study assessing complications associated with transsphenoidal PA resection, the rate of death or major disability was 0.26%. Risk factors for complications included prior surgical treatment and PA invasion. No differences in complication rates between endoscopic and microscopic surgery were observed. When performed at experienced pituitary centers, transsphenoidal surgery for PAs may be performed with a high degree of safety.

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Justin Seltzer, Michelle A. Wedemeyer, Phillip A. Bonney, John D. Carmichael, Martin Weiss and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Incidental pituitary adenomas (IPAs) are commonly discovered during cranial imaging evaluations obtained for unrelated indications. The optimal management of IPA remains controversial. The authors investigated the outcomes and safety of the surgical treatment of IPAs at their institution.

METHODS

Clinical outcome data for 1692 patients surgically treated for pituitary adenomas at the Keck Medical Center of USC/USC Pituitary Center over a 17-year period (1999–2016) were reviewed to identify all cases with surgically managed IPAs. Clinical characteristics reviewed in this retrospective analysis included patient demographics, endocrine laboratory data, visual field examinations, and MRI results. Intraoperative data reviewed included requirement for CSF leak repair, surgical complications, and estimated extent of resection. Postoperative data collected included pathology results, length of stay, postoperative complications, endocrine outcomes, readmission rates, and long-term outcomes, including extent of resection noted on postoperative imaging studies and tumor progression and/or recurrence.

RESULTS

Fifty-two patients (3.1% of all cases) underwent transsphenoidal surgery for IPA. The median age at surgery was 61 years (range 31–86 years). The most common reasons for neuroimaging included trauma (19%), stroke/transient ischemic attack (15%), and sinonasal disease (15%). Visual field deficits were present in 15% of bedside examinations, and among the 22 patients sent for formal testing, 54.5% were noted to have deficits. Preoperative endocrine function was normal in 69% of patients, which includes 3 patients (5.8%) having isolated hyperprolactinemia consistent with a stalk effect without other hormonal dysfunction. The average maximal tumor diameter was 20.9 mm (8–50 mm; data available in 35 patients). The most common primary indication for surgery was compression of the chiasm or vision loss (52%); other major considerations included tumor growth, a young patient age, and identified endocrine abnormalities. Intraoperative CSF leak repair was performed in 56% of patients, and 1 patient (2%) developed postoperative CSF rhinorrhea treated with lumbar drainage. The median hospital stay was 2 days. There were no deaths or major complications. Three patients (5.8%) developed transient diabetes insipidus. Over a mean follow-up of 61 months, 4 patients (50.0%) reported improved headaches and 6 (54.5%) reported improvement in their visual deficits. Four patients (25%) had improved endocrine function, including one with resumption of menstruation and another with remission of acromegaly. One patient (2.4%) reported new postoperative headache, and none experienced worsened vision. Four patients (10.5%) developed new single-axis hypopituitarism and 1 (2.6%) developed new panhypopituitarism. The overall recurrence/progression rate on neuroimaging was 9.6% at a mean of 80 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Transsphenoidal resection of IPAs, when appropriate, can be performed safely at experienced treatment centers. Incidental pituitary adenomas should be evaluated and treated as indicated, especially in younger patients at risk for endocrine or visual dysfunction.

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Ben A. Strickland, Michelle Wedemeyer, Saman Sizdahkhani and Steven L. Giannotta