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Daniel Rosenthal, Gerhard Marquardt, Ruediger Lorenz, and Michael Nichtweiß

✓ It is well accepted that the treatment of spinal tumors that threaten neurological integrity comprises resection, vertebral body reconstruction, and stabilization if the patient's condition is suitable. In spite of the excellent results reported using thoracotomy, the majority of investigators recommend posterolateral techniques because of lower morbidity, shorter hospitalization time, and the possibility of performing dorsal stabilization via the same incision. To overcome some of the disadvantages of thoracotomy, the authors developed an anterior procedure that permits vertebrectomy, reconstruction, and stabilization to be performed entirely by endoscopic technique. Microsurgical endoscopy and stabilization were performed in four patients with metastatic disease of the thoracic spine. All were ambulatory after surgery and at follow up; preoperative neurological and neurophysiological deficits improved as well. No complications occurred in this small series. Microsurgical endoscopy achieves a substantial reduction in trauma, use of analgesic medications, and hospitalization time. Early results seem to indicate that adequate decompression, stabilization and reduction of surgical morbidity can be achieved with this technique.

Open access

Elie Massaad, Christopher P. Bridge, Ali Kiapour, Mitchell S. Fourman, Julia B. Duvall, Ian D. Connolly, Muhamed Hadzipasic, Ganesh M. Shankar, Katherine P. Andriole, Michael Rosenthal, Andrew J. Schoenfeld, Mark H. Bilsky, and John H. Shin

OBJECTIVE

Cancer patients with spinal metastases may undergo surgery without clear assessments of prognosis, thereby impacting the optimal palliative strategy. Because the morbidity of surgery may adversely impact recovery and initiation of adjuvant therapies, evaluation of risk factors associated with mortality risk and complications is critical. Evaluation of body composition of cancer patients as a surrogate for frailty is an emerging area of study for improving preoperative risk stratification.

METHODS

To examine the associations of muscle characteristics and adiposity with postoperative complications, length of stay, and mortality in patients with spinal metastases, the authors designed an observational study of 484 cancer patients who received surgical treatment for spinal metastases between 2010 and 2019. Sarcopenia, muscle radiodensity, visceral adiposity, and subcutaneous adiposity were assessed on routinely available 3-month preoperative CT images by using a validated deep learning methodology. The authors used k-means clustering analysis to identify patients with similar body composition characteristics. Regression models were used to examine the associations of sarcopenia, frailty, and clusters with the outcomes of interest.

RESULTS

Of 484 patients enrolled, 303 had evaluable CT data on muscle and adiposity (mean age 62.00 ± 11.91 years; 57.8% male). The authors identified 2 clusters with significantly different body composition characteristics and mortality risks after spine metastases surgery. Patients in cluster 2 (high-risk cluster) had lower muscle mass index (mean ± SD 41.16 ± 7.99 vs 50.13 ± 10.45 cm2/m2), lower subcutaneous fat area (147.62 ± 57.80 vs 289.83 ± 109.31 cm2), lower visceral fat area (82.28 ± 48.96 vs 239.26 ± 98.40 cm2), higher muscle radiodensity (35.67 ± 9.94 vs 31.13 ± 9.07 Hounsfield units [HU]), and significantly higher risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05–2.01, p = 0.02) than individuals in cluster 1 (low-risk cluster). Decreased muscle mass, muscle radiodensity, and adiposity were not associated with a higher rate of complications after surgery. Prolonged length of stay (> 7 days) was associated with low muscle radiodensity (mean 30.87 vs 35.23 HU, 95% CI 1.98–6.73, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Body composition analysis shows promise for better risk stratification of patients with spinal metastases under consideration for surgery. Those with lower muscle mass and subcutaneous and visceral adiposity are at greater risk for inferior outcomes.

Free access

Lennart Riemann, Daphne C. Voormolen, Katrin Rauen, Klaus Zweckberger, Andreas Unterberg, Alexander Younsi, and the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) Investigators and Participants

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of postconcussive symptoms and their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric and adolescent patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who received head CT imaging during initial assessment.

METHODS

Patients aged between 5 and 21 years with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale scores 13–15) and available Rivermead Post Concussion Questionnaire (RPQ) at 6 months of follow-up in the multicenter, prospectively collected CENTER-TBI (Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI) study were included. The prevalence of postconcussive symptoms was assessed, and the occurrence of postconcussive syndrome (PSC) based on the ICD-10 criteria, was analyzed. HRQOL was compared in patients with and without PCS using the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire.

RESULTS

A total of 196 adolescent or pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging were included. High-energy trauma was prevalent in more than half of cases (54%), abnormalities on head CT scans were detected in 41%, and admission to the regular ward or intensive care unit was necessary in 78%. Six months postinjury, 36% of included patients had experienced at least one moderate or severe symptom on the RPQ. PCS was present in 13% of adolescents and children when considering symptoms of at least moderate severity, and those patients had significantly lower QOLIBRI total scores, indicating lower HRQOL, compared with young patients without PCS (57 vs 83 points, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Adolescent and pediatric mTBI patients requiring head CT imaging show signs of increased trauma severity. Postconcussive symptoms are present in up to one-third of those patients, and PCS can be diagnosed in 13% 6 months after injury. Moreover, PCS is significantly associated with decreased HRQOL.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010