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Philippe Schucht, Kathleen Seidel, Jürgen Beck, Michael Murek, Astrid Jilch, Roland Wiest, Christian Fung and Andreas Raabe

Object

Resection of glioblastoma adjacent to motor cortex or subcortical motor pathways carries a high risk of both incomplete resection and postoperative motor deficits. Although the strategy of maximum safe resection is widely accepted, the rates of complete resection of enhancing tumor (CRET) and the exact causes for motor deficits (mechanical vs vascular) are not always known. The authors report the results of their concept of combining monopolar mapping and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)–guided surgery in patients with glioblastoma adjacent to eloquent tissue.

Methods

The authors prospectively studied 72 consecutive patients who underwent 5-ALA–guided surgery for a glioblastoma adjacent to the corticospinal tract (CST; < 10 mm) with continuous dynamic monopolar motor mapping (short-train interstimulus interval 4.0 msec, pulse duration 500 μsec) coupled to an acoustic motor evoked potential (MEP) alarm. The extent of resection was determined based on early (< 48 hours) postoperative MRI findings. Motor function was assessed 1 day after surgery, at discharge, and at 3 months.

Results

Five patients were excluded because of nonadherence to protocol; thus, 67 patients were evaluated. The lowest motor threshold reached during individual surgery was as follows (motor threshold, number of patients): > 20 mA, n = 8; 11–20 mA, n = 13; 6–10 mA, n = 10; 4–5 mA, n = 13; and 1–3 mA, n = 23. Motor deterioration at postsurgical Day 1 and at discharge occurred in 30% (n = 20) and 10% (n = 7) of patients, respectively. At 3 months, 3 patients (4%) had a persisting postoperative motor deficit, 2 caused by vascular injury and 1 by mechanical injury. The rates of intra- and postoperative seizures were 1% and 0%, respectively. Complete resection of enhancing tumor was achieved in 73% of patients (49/67) despite proximity to the CST.

Conclusions

A rather high rate of CRET can be achieved in glioblastomas in motor eloquent areas via a combination of 5-ALA for tumor identification and intraoperative mapping for distinguishing between presumed and actual motor eloquent tissues. Continuous dynamic mapping was found to be a very ergonomic technique that localizes the motor tissue early and reliably.

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Alessa Schütz, Michael Murek, Lennart Henning Stieglitz, Corrado Bernasconi, Sonja Vulcu, Jürgen Beck, Andreas Raabe and Philippe Schucht

OBJECTIVE

Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is an established treatment for refractory intracranial hypertension. It is usually followed by autologous cranioplasty (AC), the reinsertion of a patient’s explanted bone flap. A frequent long-term complication of AC is bone flap resorption (BFR), which results in disfigurement as well as loss of the protective covering of the brain. This study investigates risk factors for BFR after AC, including medical conditions and antihypertensive drug therapies, with a focus on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), which have been associated with a beneficial effect on bone healing and bone preservation in orthopedic, osteoporosis, and endocrinology research.

METHODS

In this single-center, retrospective study 183 consecutive cases were evaluated for bone flap resorption after AC. Information on patient demographics, medical conditions, antihypertensive therapy, and BFR—defined as an indication for revision surgery established by a neurosurgeon based on clinical or radiographic assessments—was collected. A Kaplan-Meier analysis of time from AC to diagnosis of BFR was performed, and factors associated with BFR were investigated using the log-rank test and Cox regression.

RESULTS

A total of 158 patients were considered eligible for inclusion in the data analysis. The median follow-up time for this group was 2.2 years (95% CI 1.9–2.5 years). BFR occurred in 47 patients (29.7%), with a median time to event of 3.7 years (95% CI 3.3–4.1 years). An ACEI prescription was recorded in 57 cases (36.1%). Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test revealed that ACEI therapy (2-year event free probability [EFP] 83.8% ± 6.1% standard error vs 63.9% ± 5.6%, p = 0.02) and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment (2-year EFP 86.9% ± 7.1% vs 66% ± 5.0%, p = 0.024) were associated with a lower probability of BFR. Multiple Cox regression analysis showed ACEI therapy (HR 0.29, p = 0.012), VP shunt treatment (HR 0.278, p = 0.009), and male sex (HR 0.500, p = 0.040) to be associated with a lower risk for BFR, whereas bone fragmentation (HR 1.92, p = 0.031) was associated with a higher risk for BFR.

CONCLUSIONS

Hypertensive patients treated with ACEIs demonstrate a lower rate of BFR than patients treated with other hypertensive medications and nonhypertensive patients. Our results are in line with previous reports on the positive influence of ACEIs on bone healing and preservation. Further analysis of the association between ACEI treatment and BFR development is needed and will be evaluated in a multicenter prospective trial.

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Christian Fung, Mathias Balmer, Michael Murek, Werner J. Z'Graggen, Janine Abu-Isa, Christoph Ozdoba, Matthias Haenggi, Stephan M. Jakob, Andreas Raabe and Jürgen Beck

OBJECT

After subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), seizure occurs in up to 26% of patients. The impact of seizure on outcome has been studied, yet its impact on grading is unknown. The authors evaluated the impact of early-onset seizures (EOS) on grading of spontaneous SAH and on outcome.

METHODS

This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with SAH who were treated at the NeuroCenter, Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Switzerland, between January 2005 and December 2010. Demographic data, clinical data, and reports of EOS were recorded. The EOS were defined as seizures occurring within 24 hours after ictus. Patients were graded according to the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale pre- and postresuscitation and dichotomized into good (WFNS I–III) and poor (WFNS IV–V) grades. Outcome was assessed at 6 months by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS); an mRS score of 0–3 was considered a good outcome and an mRS score of 4–6 was considered a poor outcome.

RESULTS

Forty-one of 425 patients with SAH had EOS. Twenty-seven of those 41 patients (65.9%) had a poor WFNS grade. Twenty-eight (68.3%) achieved a good outcome, 11 (26.8%) had a poor outcome, and 2 (4.9%) were lost to followup. Early-onset seizures were proven in 9 of 16 electroencephalograms. The EOS were associated with poor WFNS grade (OR 2.81, 97.5% CI 1.14–7.46; p = 0.03) and good outcome (OR 4.01, 97.5% CI 1.63–10.53; p = 0.03). Increasing age, hydrocephalus, intracerebral hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage were associated with poor WFNS grade, whereas only age, intracerebral hemorrhage (p < 0.001), and poor WFNS grade (p < 0.001) were associated with poor outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with EOS were classified significantly more often in a poor grade initially, but then they significantly more often achieved a good outcome. The authors conclude that EOS can negatively influence grading. This might influence decision making for the care of patients with SAH, so grading of patients with EOS should be interpreted with caution.

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Christian Fung, Fabienne Inglin, Michael Murek, Mathias Balmer, Janine Abu-Isa, Werner J. Z’Graggen, Christoph Ozdoba, Jan Gralla, Stephan M. Jakob, Jukka Takala, Jürgen Beck and Andreas Raabe

OBJECT

Current data show a favorable outcome in up to 50% of patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Grade V subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and a rather poor prediction of worst cases. Thus, the usefulness of the current WFNS grading system for identifying the worst scenarios for clinical studies and for making treatment decisions is limited. One reason for this lack of differentiation is the use of “negative” or “silent” diagnostic signs as part of the WFNS Grade V definition. The authors therefore reevaluated the WFNS scale by using “positive” clinical signs and the logic of the Glasgow Coma Scale as a progressive herniation score.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 182 patients with SAH who had poor grades on the WFNS scale. Patients were graded according to the original WFNS scale and additionally according to a modified classification, the WFNS herniation (hWFNS) scale (Grade IV, no clinical signs of herniation; Grade V, clinical signs of herniation). The prediction of poor outcome was compared between these two grading systems.

RESULTS

The positive predictive values of Grade V for poor outcome were 74.3% (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.94–7.54) for WFNS Grade V and 85.7% (OR 8.27, 95% CI 3.78–19.47) for hWFNS Grade V. With respect to mortality, the positive predictive values were 68.3% (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.01–7.69) for WFNS Grade V and 77.9% (OR 6.22, 95% CI 3.07–13.14) for hWFNS Grade V.

CONCLUSIONS

Limiting WFNS Grade V to the positive clinical signs of the Glasgow Coma Scale such as flexion, extension, and pupillary abnormalities instead of including “no motor response” increases the prediction of mortality and poor outcome in patients with severe SAH.

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Philippe Schucht, Kathleen Seidel, Michael Murek, Lennart Henning Stieglitz, Natalie Urwyler, Roland Wiest, Maja Steinlin, Kurt Leibundgut, Andreas Raabe and Jürgen Beck

Object

Resection of lesions close to the primary motor cortex (M1) and the corticospinal tract (CST) is generally regarded as high-risk surgery due to reported rates of postoperative severe deficits of up to 50%. The authors' objective was to determine the feasibility and safety of low-threshold motor mapping and its efficacy for increasing the extent of lesion resection in the proximity of M1 and the CST in children and adolescents.

Methods

The authors analyzed 8 consecutive pediatric patients in whom they performed 9 resections for lesions within or close (≤ 10 mm) to M1 and/or the CST. Monopolar high-frequency motor mapping with train-of-five stimuli (pulse duration 500 μsec, interstimulus interval 4.0 msec, frequency 250 Hz) was used. The motor threshold was defined as the minimal stimulation intensity that elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from target muscles (amplitude > 30 μV). Resection was performed toward M1 and the CST at sites negative to 1- to 3-mA high-frequency train-of-five stimulation.

Results

The M1 was identified through high-frequency train-of-five via application of varying low intensities. The lowest motor thresholds after final resection ranged from 1 to 9 mA in 8 cases and up to 18 mA in 1 case, indicating proximity to motor neurons. Intraoperative electroencephalography documented an absence of seizures during all surgeries. Two transient neurological deficits were observed, but there were no permanent deficits. Postoperative imaging revealed complete resection in 8 patients and a very small remnant (< 0.175 cm3) in 1 patient.

Conclusions

High-frequency train-of-five with a minimal threshold of 1–3 mA is a feasible and safe procedure for resections in the proximity of the CST. Thus, low-threshold motor mapping might help to expand the area for safe resection in pediatric patients with lesions located within the precentral gyrus and close to the CST, and may be regarded as a functional navigational tool. The additional use of continuous MEP monitoring serves as a safety feedback for the functional integrity of the CST, especially because the true excitability threshold in children is unknown.