Therapeutic doses of radiation for paraspinal tumors are often limited by the dose-related tolerance of the spinal cord. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced form of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy that provides improved coverage of tumor volumes while reducing the radiation dose to the spinal cord. Computer-controlled multileaf collimation provides high conformality, which makes it feasible to treat tumors of any shape, even those that are wrapped around the spinal cord. The use of a newly developed, noninvasive body frame, the capability of fusing computerized tomography and magnetic resonance images, and on-line portal films provide precise target immobilization and target identification. In this paper the authors discuss their preliminary experience in six cases in which IMRT was used to treat paraspinal lesions in patients who harbored locally recurrent tumors and/or tumors that previously received the maximum doses of radiation that could be tolerated by the spinal cord.
Mark H. Bilsky, Kamil Yenice, Michael Lovelock and Josh Yamada
Yoshiya Yamada, Evangelia Katsoulakis, Ilya Laufer, Michael Lovelock, Ori Barzilai, Lily A. McLaughlin, Zhigang Zhang, Adam M. Schmitt, Daniel S. Higginson, Eric Lis, Michael J. Zelefsky, James Mechalakos and Mark H. Bilsky
An analysis of factors contributing to durable radiographic control of spinal metastases was undertaken, drawing from a large single-institution database in an attempt to elucidate indications and dose requirements for successful treatment.
All patients treated at a single institution with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of the spine as first-line therapy were assessed for local progression of the treated site, defined as radiographic enlargement of the treated tumor and/or biopsy-proven evidence of active tumor cells. All patients were followed with CT, PET, or MR imaging every 3–6 months until death. Treatment decisions were made by a multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, and neuroradiologists. Target volumes were defined according to the international consensus guidelines and were reviewed in a multidisciplinary conference. Image-guided techniques and intensity modulation were used for every case. The tumor's histological type, gross tumor volume (GTV), dose that covers 95% of the GTV (GTV D95), percentage of GTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (GTV V95), planning target volume (PTV), dose that covers 95% of the PTV (PTV D95), and percentage of PTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95) were analyzed for significance in relation to local control, based on time to local progression.
A total of 811 lesions were treated in 657 patients between 2003 and 2015 at a single institution. The mean follow-up and overall survival for the entire cohort was 26.9 months (range 2–141 months). A total of 28 lesions progressed and the mean time to failure was 26 months (range 9.7–57 months). The median prescribed dose was 2400 cGy (range 1600–2600 cGy). Both GTV D95 and PTV D95 were highly significantly associated with local failure in univariate analysis, but GTV and PTV and histological type did not reach statistical significance. The median GTV D95 for the cohort equal to or above the GTV D95 1830 cGy cut point (high dose) was 2356 cGy, and it was 1709 cGy for the cohort of patients who received less than 1830 cGy (low dose). In terms of PTV D95, the median dose for those equal to or above the cut point of 1740 cGy (high dose) was 2233 cGy, versus 1644 cGy for those lesions below the PTV D95 cut point of 1740 cGy (low dose).
High-dose single-session SRS provides durable long-term control, regardless of the histological findings or tumor size. In this analysis, the only significant factors predictive of local control were related to the actual dose of radiation given. Although the target volumes were well treated with the intended dose, those lesions irradiated to higher doses (median GTV D95 2356 cGy, minimum 1830 cGy) had a significantly higher probability of durable local control than those treated with lower doses (median PTV D95 2232 cGy, minimum of 1740 cGy) (p < 0.001). Patients in the high-dose cohort had a 2% cumulative rate of local failure. Histological findings were not associated with local failure, suggesting that radioresistant histological types benefit in particular from radiosurgery. For patients with a favorable prognosis, a higher dose of SRS is important for long-term outcomes.
Evangelia Katsoulakis, Ilya Laufer, Mark Bilsky, Narasimhan P. Agaram, Michael Lovelock and Yoshiya Yamada
Spine radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat spinal metastases. As patients are living longer because of the increasing efficacy of systemic agents, appropriate follow-up and posttreatment management for these patients is critical. Tumor progression after spine radiosurgery is rare; however, vertebral compression fractures are recognized as a more common posttreatment effect. The use of radiographic imaging alone posttreatment may makeit difficult to distinguish tumor progression from postradiation changes such as fibrosis. This is the largest series from a prospective database in which the authors examine histopathology of samples obtained from patients who underwent surgical intervention for presumed tumor progression or mechanical pain secondary to compression fracture. The majority of patients had tumor ablation and resulting fibrosis rather than tumor progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor histopathology and characteristics of patients who underwent pathological sampling because of radiographic tumor progression, fibrosis, or collapsed vertebrae after receiving high-dose single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery.
Between January 2005 and January 2014, a total of 582 patients were treated with linear accelerator–based single-fraction (18–24 Gy) stereotactic radiosurgery. The authors retrospectively identified 30 patients (5.1%) who underwent surgical intervention for 32 lesions with vertebral cement augmentation for either mechanical pain or instability secondary to vertebral compression fracture (n = 17) or instrumentation (n = 15) for radiographic tumor progression. Radiation and surgical treatment, histopathology, and long-term outcomes were reviewed. Survival and time to recurrence were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
The mean age at the time of radiosurgery was 59 years (range 36–80 years). The initial pathological diagnoses were obtained for all patients and primarily included radioresistant tumor types, including renal cell carcinoma in 7 (22%), melanoma in 6 (19%), lung carcinoma in 4 (12%), and sarcoma in 3 (9%). The median time to surgical intervention was 24.7 months (range 1.6–50.8 months). The median follow-up and overall survival for all patients were 42.5 months and 41 months (overall survival range 7–86 months), respectively. The majority of assessed lesions showed no evidence of tumor on pathological review (25 of 32, 78%), while a minority of lesions revealed residual tumor (7 of 32, 22%). The median survival for patients after tumor recurrence was 5 months (range 2–70 months).
High-dose single-fraction radiosurgery is tumor ablative in the majority of instances. In a minority of cases, tumor persists and salvage treatments should be considered.
Ori Barzilai, Natalie DiStefano, Eric Lis, Yoshiya Yamada, D. Michael Lovelock, Andrew N. Fontanella, Mark H. Bilsky and Ilya Laufer
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of kyphoplasty treatment prior to spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with spine metastases.
A retrospective review of charts, radiology reports, and images was performed for all patients who received SRS (single fraction; either standalone or post-kyphoplasty) at a large tertiary cancer center between January 2012 and July 2015. Patient and tumor variables were documented, as well as treatment planning data and dosimetry. To measure the photon scatter due to polymethyl methacrylate, megavolt photon beam attenuation was determined experimentally as it passed through a kyphoplasty cement phantom. Corrected electron density values were recalculated and compared with uncorrected values.
Of 192 treatment levels in 164 unique patients who underwent single-fraction SRS, 17 (8.8%) were treated with kyphoplasty prior to radiation delivery to the index level. The median time from kyphoplasty to SRS was 22 days. Four of 192 treatments (2%) demonstrated local tumor recurrence or progression at the time of analysis. Of the 4 local failures, 1 patient had kyphoplasty prior to SRS. This recurrence occurred 18 months after SRS in the setting of widespread systemic disease and spinal tumor progression. Dosimetric review demonstrated a lower than average treatment dose for this case compared with the rest of the cohort. There were no significant differences in dosimetry analysis between the group of patients who underwent kyphoplasty prior to SRS and the remaining patients in the cohort. A preliminary analysis of polymethyl methacrylate showed that dosimetric errors due to uncorrected electron density values were insignificant.
In cases without epidural spinal cord compression, stabilization with cement augmentation prior to SRS is safe and does not alter the efficacy of the radiation or preclude physicians from adhering to SRS planning and contouring guidelines.