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Wieslaw L. Nowinski, Beng Choon Chua, Ihar Volkau, Fiftarina Puspitasari, Yevgen Marchenko, Val M. Runge and Michael V. Knopp

Object

The most severe complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is intracranial hemorrhage. Detailed knowledge of the cerebrovasculature could reduce the rate of this disorder. Morphological scans typically acquired in stereotactic and functional neurosurgery (SFN) by using 1.5-T (or sometimes even 3-T) imaging units poorly depict the vasculature. Advanced angiographic imaging, including 3- and 7-T 3D time-of-flight and susceptibility weighted imaging as well as 320-slice CT angiography, depict the vessels in great detail. However, these acquisitions are not used in SFN clinical practice, and robust methods for their processing are not available yet. Therefore, the authors proposed the use of a detailed 3D stereotactic cerebrovascular atlas to assist in SFN planning and to potentially reduce DBS-induced hemorrhage.

Methods

A very detailed 3D cerebrovascular atlas of arteries, veins, and dural sinuses was constructed from multiple 3- and 7-T scans. The atlas contained > 900 vessels, each labeled with a name and diameter with the smallest having a 90-μm diameter. The cortical areas, ventricular system, and subcortical structures were fully segmented and labeled, including the main stereotactic target structures: subthalamic nucleus, ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, and internal globus pallidus. The authors also developed a computer simulator with the embedded atlas that was able to compute the effective electrode trajectory by minimizing penetration of the cerebrovascular system and vital brain structures by a DBS electrode. The simulator provides the neurosurgeon with functions for atlas manipulation, target selection, trajectory planning and editing, 3D display and manipulation, and electrode-brain penetration calculation.

Results

This simulation demonstrated that a DBS electrode inserted in the middle frontal gyrus may intersect several arteries and veins including 1) the anteromedial frontal artery of the anterior cerebral artery as well as the prefrontal artery and the precentral sulcus artery of the middle cerebral artery (range of diameters 0.4–0.6 mm); and 2) the prefrontal, anterior caudate, and medullary veins (range of diameters 0.1–2.3 mm). This work also shows that field strength and pulse sequence have a substantial impact on vessel depiction. The numbers of 3D vascular segments are 215, 363, and 907 for 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T scans, respectively.

Conclusions

Inserting devices into the brain during microrecording and stimulation may cause microbleeds not discernible on standard scans. A small change in the location of the DBS electrode can result in a major change for the patient. The described simulation increases the neurosurgeon's awareness of this phenomenon. The simulator enables the neurosurgeon to analyze the spatial relationships between the track and the cerebrovasculature, ventricles, subcortical structures, and cortical areas, which allows the DBS electrode to be placed more effectively, and thus potentially reducing the invasiveness of the stimulation procedure for the patient.

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Matthew J. Kuhn, Piero Picozzi, Joseph A. Maldjian, Ilona M. Schmalfuss, Kenneth R. Maravilla, Brian C. Bowen, Franz J. Wippold II, Val M. Runge, Michael V. Knopp, Leo J. Wolansky, Lars Gustafsson, Marco Essig and Nicoletta Anzalone

Object

The goal in this article was to compare 0.1 mmol/kg doses of gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadopentetate dimeglumine, also known as gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), for enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of intraaxial brain tumors.

Methods

Eighty-four patients with either intraaxial glioma (47 patients) or metastasis (37 patients) underwent two MR imaging examinations at 1.5 tesla, one with Gd-BOPTA as the contrast agent and the other with Gd-DTPA. The interval between fully randomized contrast medium administrations was 2 to 7 days. The T1-weighted spin echo and T2-weighted fast spin echo images were acquired before administration of contrast agents and T1-weighted spin echo images were obtained after the agents were administered. Acquisition parameters and postinjection acquisition times were identical for the two examinations in each patient. Three experienced readers working in a fully blinded fashion independently evaluated all images for degree and quality of available information (lesion contrast enhancement, lesion border delineation, definition of disease extent, visualization of the lesion's internal structures, global diagnostic preference) and quantitative enhancement (that is, the extent of lesion enhancement after contrast agent administration compared with that seen before its administration [hereafter referred to as percent enhancement], lesion/brain ratio, and contrast/noise ratio). Differences were tested with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Reader agreement was assessed using kappa statistics.

Significantly better diagnostic information/imaging performance (p < 0.0001, all readers) was obtained with Gd-BOPTA for all visualization end points. Global preference for images obtained with Gd-BOPTA was expressed for 42 (50%), 52 (61.9%), and 56 (66.7%) of 84 patients (readers 1, 2, and 3, respectively) compared with images obtained with Gd-DTPA contrast in four (4.8%), six (7.1%), and three (3.6%) of 84 patients. Similar differences were noted for all other visualization end points. Significantly greater quantitative contrast enhancement (p < 0.04) was noted after administration of Gd-BOPTA. Reader agreement was good (κ > 0.4).

Conclusions

Lesion visualization, delineation, definition, and contrast enhancement are significantly better after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-BOPTA, potentially allowing better surgical planning and follow up and improved disease management.

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Ashwatha Narayana, Patrick Kelly, John Golfinos, Erik Parker, Glyn Johnson, Edmond Knopp, David Zagzag, Ingeborg Fischer, Shahzad Raza, Praveen Medabalmi, Patricia Eagan and Michael L. Gruber

Object

Antiangiogenic agents have recently shown impressive radiological responses in high-grade glioma. However, it is not clear if the responses are related to vascular changes or due to antitumoral effects. The authors report the mature results of a clinical study of bevacizumab-based treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas.

Methods

Sixty-one patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas received treatment with bevacizumab at 10 mg/ kg every 2 weeks for 4 doses in an 8-week cycle along with either irinotecan or carboplatin. The choice of concomitant chemotherapeutic agent was based on the number of recurrences and prior chemotherapy.

Results

At a median follow-up of 7.5 months (range 1–19 months), 50 (82%) of 61 patients relapsed and 42 patients (70%) died of the disease. The median number of administered bevacizumab cycles was 2 (range 1–7 cycles). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3–7.7) and 9 (95% CI 7.6–10.4) months, respectively, as calculated from the initiation of the bevacizumab-based therapy. Radiologically demonstrated responses following therapy were noted in 73.6% of cases. Neither the choice of chemotherapeutic agent nor the performance of a resection prior to therapy had an impact on patient survival. Although the predominant pattern of relapse was local, 15 patients (30%) had diffuse disease.

Conclusions

Antiangiogenic therapy using bevacizumab appears to improve survival in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. A possible change in the invasiveness of the tumor following therapy is worrisome and must be closely monitored.