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Michael Hugelshofer, Nicolas Olmo Koechlin, Hani J. Marcus, Ralf A. Kockro and Robert Reisch

OBJECT

The endoscopic fenestration of intraventricular CSF cysts has evolved into a well-accepted treatment modality. However, definition of the optimal trajectory for endoscopic fenestration may be difficult. Distorted ventricular anatomy and poor visibility within the cyst due to its contents can make endoscopic fenestration challenging if approached from the ipsilateral side. In addition, transcortical approaches can theoretically cause injury to eloquent cortex, particularly in patients with dominant-sided lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the value of the contralateral transcortical transventricular approach in patients with dominant-sided ventricular cysts.

METHODS

During a 5-year period between 2007 and 2011, 31 patients with intraventricular CSF cysts underwent surgery by the senior author (R.R.). Fourteen of these patients had cysts located on the dominant side. An image-guided endoscopic cyst fenestration via the contralateral transcortical transventricular approach was performed in 11 patients. A retrospective chart review was performed in all these patients to extract data on clinical presentation, operative technique, and surgical outcome.

RESULTS

The most common presenting symptom was headache, followed by memory deficits and cognitive deterioration. In all cases CSF cysts were space occupying, with associated obstructive hydrocephalus in 8 patients. Image-guided endoscopic fenestration was successfully performed in all cases, with septum pellucidotomy necessary in 6 cases, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 1 case for additional aqueductal occlusion. Postoperative clinical outcome was excellent, with no associated permanent neurological or neuropsychological morbidity. No recurrent cysts were observed over a mean follow-up period of 2 years and 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS

The contralateral approach to ventricular cysts can achieve excellent surgical outcomes while minimizing approach-related trauma to the dominant hemisphere. Careful case selection is essential to ensure that the contralateral endoscopic trajectory is the best possible exposure for sufficient cyst fenestration and restoration of CSF circulation.

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Michael Hugelshofer, Nicola Acciarri, Ulrich Sure, Dimitrios Georgiadis, Ralf W. Baumgartner, Helmut Bertalanffy and Adrian M. Siegel

Object

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular lesions in the brain, affecting approximately 0.5% of the population and representing 10%–20% of all cerebral vascular lesions. One-quarter of all CCMs affect pediatric patients, and CCMs are reported as one of the main causes of brain hemorrhage in this age group. Symptoms include epileptic seizures, headache, and focal neurological deficits. Patients with symptomatic CCMs can be treated either conservatively or with resection if lesions cause medically refractory epilepsy or other persistent symptoms.

Methods

The authors retrospectively analyzed 79 pediatric patients (41 boys and 38 girls) from 3 different centers, who were surgically treated for their symptomatic CCMs between 1974 and 2004. The mean age of the children at first manifestation was 9.7 years, and the mean age at operation was 11.3 years. The main goal was to compare the clinical outcomes with respect to the location of the lesion of children who preoperatively suffered from epileptic seizures.

Results

Of these patients, 77.3% were seizure free (Engel Class I) after the resection of the CCM. Significant differences in the outcome between children who harbored CCMs at different locations were not found.

Conclusions

Resection seems to be the favorable treatment of symptomatic CCMs not only in adults but also in children.

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Robert Reisch, Hani J. Marcus, Michael Hugelshofer, Nicolas Olmo Koechlin, Axel Stadie and Ralf A. Kockro

Object

The supraorbital approach through an eyebrow incision offers the opportunity to access a wide variety of lesions of the anterior, middle, and even the posterior fossa. The minimally invasive keyhole craniotomy limits brain exploration and retraction and offers the potential for improved surgical outcomes and reduced approach-related complications. Patient satisfaction, however, has not yet been reported in the literature.

Methods

From January 2002 through December 2011, the lead author (R.R.) used a supraorbital approach through an eyebrow incision for 418 patients with cerebral aneurysms, brain tumors or cystic lesions, and other miscellaneous pathological conditions. For 408 of these patients, a detailed retrospective case note review was conducted to extract data on surgical outcomes and complications, and 375 patients completed a follow-up patient satisfaction questionnaire.

Results

During the early perioperative period, 8 patients died (overall mortality rate 2.0%). Among patients surveyed, the overall level of satisfaction was high. Patients rated pain from the scar and headache on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = no pain, 5 = severe pain) as follows: pain was a score of 1 for 289 patients (77.0%), 2 for 46 (12.3%), 3 for 22 (5.9%), 4 for 12 (3.2%), and 5 for 6 (1.6%). Patients also rated cosmetic outcome on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = very pleasant, 5 = very unpleasant) as follows: outcome was a score of 1 for 315 patients (84.0%), 2 for 33 (8.8%), 3 for 14 (3.7%), 4 for 10 (2.7%), and 5 for 3 (0.8%). Postoperative chewing difficulty was reported for 8 patients (8 [2.1%] temporary, 0 permanent); palsy of the frontal muscle for 21 patients (5.6%; 13 [3.5%] temporary, 8 [2.1%] permanent); frontal hypesthesia for 31 patients (8.3%; 18 [4.8%] temporary, 13 [3.4%] permanent); and hyposmia for 11 patients (2.9%; 3 [0.8%] temporary, 8 [2.1%] permanent).

Conclusions

The supraorbital approach to the anterior, middle, and posterior fossae through an eyebrow incision offers a favorable rate of approach-associated surgical complications and high patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome.