Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 41 items for

  • Author or Editor: Michael Gaab x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Michael R. Gaab and Henry W. S. Schroeder

Object. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in patients with intraventricular tumors.

Methods. A series of 30 patients with endoscopically treated intraventricular lesions is reported. The lesions included seven colloid cysts, six astrocytomas, three subependymomas, two ependymomas, and one each of the following: pineoblastoma, pineocytoma/pineoblastoma (intermediate type), epidermoid cyst, pineal cyst, medulloblastoma, arteriovenous hemangioma, cavernoma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, melanoma, and germinoma. Total tumor resections, partial resections, biopsies, stent implantations, septostomies, and third ventriculostomies were performed. In two cases (two subependymomas > 2 cm in diameter), piecemeal endoscopic resection was ineffective because of the very firm consistency of the tumors. Therefore the endoscopic procedure was discontinued and the tumors were removed microsurgically. In the remaining cases the procedures were completed as planned. Even in the presence of difficulties such as poor orientation or significant bleeding, there was no need to abandon the endoscopic procedure. A total of 28 strictly endoscopic interventions were performed, in which the average duration was 85 minutes (range 35–170 minutes). All colloid cysts and the epidermoid lesion were completely evacuated and the capsules were widely resected. Total extirpation of solid tumors was achieved in five cases, whereas most astrocytomas were partially resected. The hydrocephalus-related symptoms resolved in all of the 22 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pathway obstruction. There were no endoscopy-related deaths. In two cases, major bleeding occurred and was controlled endoscopically. The authors observed one case of meningitis, one of mutism, two of memory loss attributed to forniceal injury, one of transient trochlear palsy after a biopsy specimen of an aqueductal tumor was obtained, and one of transient confusion after a biopsy specimen of a germinoma was obtained.

Conclusions. In the authors' preliminary experience, the endoscopic approach was found to be safe and effective. In this series, it was possible to achieve relief of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, tumor resections, and even complete tumor removals by using endoscopic techniques. Based on the results, the authors believe that endoscopic techniques should be considered in the treatment of selected intraventricular lesions.

Restricted access

Jürgen Piek, Christian Wille, Rolf Warzok and Michael-Robert Gaab

✓ Control of bleeding during dissection is a problem that is still not completely resolved in neurosurgical procedures. To overcome this problem in some settings, the authors, in close collaboration with their institution, developed a new device for blunt dissection of brain tumors that is based on a waterjet technique. This report describes their first experimental and clinical experience with this new method. Numerous cutting experiments were performed in porcine cadaver brains. The best results were obtained using pressures from 4 to 6 bars with a 100-jxm tip, which produced very small, precise cuts. Histological evaluation showed no disruption or vacuolization of the surrounding tissue.

The authors have used the new device in nine patients (seven with gliomas and two undergoing temporal lobe resections for epilepsy), and no complications have been observed. The waterjet device allowed dissection of the brain tissue while even small exposed vessels were spared injury. The instrument was found to be easy to use. Future investigations will concentrate on adapting this new method to endoscopic surgery and evaluating fluids with low surface tension to avoid foaming and bubbling during open surgery.

Full access

Michael R. Gaab and Henry W. S. Schroeder

Object

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in patients with intraventricular tumors.

Methods

A series of 30 patients with endoscopically treated intraventricular lesions is reported. The lesions included seven colloid cysts, six astrocytomas, three subependymomas, two ependymomas, and one each of the following: pineoblastoma, pineocytoma/pineoblastoma (intermediate type), epidermoid cyst, pineal cyst, medulloblastoma, arteriovenous hemangioma, cavernoma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, melanoma, and germinoma. Total tumor resections, partial resections, biopsies, stent implantations, septostomies, and third ventriculostomies were performed. In two cases (two subependymomas > 2 cm in diameter), piecemeal endoscopic resection was ineffective because of the very firm consistency of the tumors. Therefore the endoscopic procedure was discontinued and the tumors were removed microsurgically. In the remaining cases the procedures were completed as planned. Even in the presence of difficulties such as poor orientation or significant bleeding, there was no need to abandon the endoscopic procedure. A total of 28 strictly endoscopic interventions were performed, in which the average duration was 85 minutes (range 35–170 minutes). All colloid cysts and the epidermoid lesion were completely evacuated and the capsules were widely resected. Total extirpation of solid tumors was achieved in five cases, whereas most astrocytomas were partially resected. The hydrocephalus-related symptoms resolved in all of the 22 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pathway obstruction. There were no endoscopy-related deaths. In two cases, major bleeding occurred and was controlled endoscopically. The authors observed one case of meningitis, one of mutism, two of memory loss attributed to forniceal injury, one of transient trochlear palsy after a biopsy specimen of an aqueductal tumor was obtained, and one of transient confusion after a biopsy specimen of a germinoma was obtained.

Conclusions

In the authors' preliminary experience, the endoscopic approach was found to be safe and effective. In this series, it was possible to achieve relief of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, tumor resections, and even complete tumor removals by using endoscopic techniques. Based on the results, the authors believe that endoscopic techniques should be considered in the treatment of selected intraventricular lesions.

Full access

Henry W. S. Schroeder and Michael R. Gaab

The authors' intention is to reduce the invasiveness of intracranial procedures while avoiding traumatization of brain tissue, to decrease the risk of neurological and mental deficits. Intracranial endoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that provides rapid access to the target via small burr holes without the need for brain retraction. Craniotomy as well as microsurgical brain splitting and dissection can often be avoided. Furthermore, because obstructed cerebrospinal fluid pathways can be physiologically restored, the need for shunt placement is eliminated. The ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces provide ideal conditions for the use of an endoscope. Therefore, a variety of disorders, such as hydrocephalus, small intraventricular lesions, and arachnoid and parenchymal cysts can be effectively treated using endoscopic techniques. With the aid of special instruments, laser fibers, and bipolar diathermy, even highly vascularized lesions such as cavernomas may be treated. Moreover, during standard microsurgical procedures, the endoscopic view may provide valuable additional information ("looking around a corner") about the individual anatomy that is not visible with the microscope. In transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, transseptal dissection can be avoided if an endonasal approach is taken. In the depth of the intrasellar space, the extent of tumor removal can be more accurately controlled, especially in larger tumors with para- and suprasellar growth.

The combined use of endoscopes and computerized neuronavigation systems increases the accuracy of the approach and provides real-time control of the endoscope tip position and approach trajectory. In the future, the indications for neuroendoscopy will certainly expand with improved technical equipment.

Restricted access

Sylvia A. Säglitz and Michael R. Gaab

Object. A possible relationship between neurovascular compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata (RVLM) and essential hypertension is investigated using a specifically designed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method.

In conjunction with the ninth and 10th cranial nerves, baroreceptor afferents enter the RVLM, which represents a crucial relay for regulation of autonomic blood pressure. In 1985 Jannetta and coworkers proposed a causal relationship between essential hypertension and intraoperatively observed neurovascular compression of the left RVLM.

Methods. Currently, MR imaging is the method of choice for the assessment of neurovascular relationships at the brainstem. By obtaining axial images of a thin-slice turbo inversion-recovery sequence and three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiograms (fast imaging with steady-state precision), the authors documented the occurrence of neurovascular contacts with the RVLM at the level of the root entry zones (REZs) of the ninth and 10th cranial nerves in 25 patients with essential hypertension, 30 normotensive volunteers, and 10 patients with renal hypertension.

Neurovascular contacts with the REZ at the left RVLM were found in 32% of patients with essential hypertension, 37% of normotensive volunteers, and 20% of patients with renal hypertension. In total, neurovascular contacts on either side of the RVLM were documented in 68% of patients with essential hypertension, 53% of normotensive volunteers, and 50% of patients with renal hypertension.

Conclusions. The results do not support the theory of neurovascular compression in cases of essential hypertension. Findings of neurovascular contacts on MR images are not indications for decompression surgery. For further clarification, however, prospective MR imaging studies should be considered in young patients with essential hypertension in whom the history of high blood pressure is short.

Restricted access
Restricted access

Henry W. S. Schroeder, Wulf-Rüdiger Niendorf and Michael R. Gaab

Object. The purpose of this prospective investigation was to determine the rate of complications associated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV).

Methods. Between March 1993 and October 2001, 193 ETVs were performed in 188 patients at a single institution. The age of the patients ranged from 1 month to 85 years (mean age 39 years). One procedure had to be abandoned because a severe venous hemorrhage blurred the surgeon's view; however, third ventriculostomy was successfully accomplished in that patient 14 days later. In addition, there were two cases in which significant venous hemorrhages could be controlled endoscopically by using irrigation. Postoperative imaging revealed three subdural collections, one tiny thalamic contusion, one cortical hemorrhage at the puncture site, and one severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There were two deaths (1% mortality rate) related to the endoscopic procedure; causes of death were one SAH from a torn basilar perforating artery and one wound infection leading to meningitis and septic multiorgan failure. Three permanent deficits occurred (confusion, oculomotor palsy, and diabetes insipidus [1.6% permanent morbidity rate]). Transient deficits included four cases of meningitis, three cases of cerebrospinal fluid leak, two cases of herniation syndrome, two cases of confusion, one case in which there was a decrease of consciousness, two cases of oculomotor palsy, and one case in which there was loss of thirst (7.8% transient morbidity rate). Misplacement of the fenestration was the main reason for severe complications. During the course of the study, the complication rate dropped significantly (no incidences of mortality or permanent morbidity occurred during the last 100 procedures).

Conclusions. All permanent and fatal complications occurred during the authors' very early experience, indicating that a steep learning curve was associated with the procedure. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy, if performed correctly, is a safe, simple, and effective treatment option for various forms of noncommunicating hydrocephalus.

Restricted access

Joachim M. K. Oertel, Yvonne Mondorf and Michael R. Gaab

Obstructive hydrocephalus due to giant basilar artery (BA) aneurysm is a rare finding, and endoscopic treatment has not been reported. Here the authors present their experience with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in obstructive hydrocephalus due to giant BA aneurysm. Between December 2000 and March 2007, 3 patients (2 men and 1 woman; age range 32–80 years) underwent an ETV for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a giant BA aneurysm. All 3 patients presented with cephalgia, nausea, vomiting, and a variable decrease in consciousness. An obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a giant BA aneurysm was found in each case as the underlying pathological entity. Intraoperatively, a narrowing of the third ventricle by upward displacement of the tegmentum was found in all 3 patients. A standard ETV was performed and included an inspection of the prepontine cisterns. The endoscopic treatment was successful in all patients with respect to clinical signs and radiological ventricular enlargement. No complications were observed. In all, the endoscopic ventriculostomy was proven to be a successful treatment option in obstructive hydrocephalus even if it is caused by untreated giant BA aneurysm.

Restricted access

Juergen Piek, Joachim Oertel and Michael Robert Gaab

Object. Waterjet dissection represents a new minimally traumatic surgical method for dissection that can be used in various parenchymal organs, in which it allows highly precise parenchymal dissection while preserving blood vessels, resulting in reduced intraoperative blood loss. This study was performed to investigate the clinical application of this new technique in neurosurgical procedures, such as brain tumor resection and epilepsy surgery.

Methods. Thirty-four patients with gliomas (Grades II–IV), cerebral metastases, temporal lobe epilepsy, or cerebellar hemangioblastomas, and one patient with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were treated surgically with the aid of the waterjet. Resection was performed using waterjet dissection in combination with conventional neurosurgical procedures. Intraoperatively, the waterjet was easy to handle, and no complications due to the device were observed. Dissection of tissue was possible for all pathological conditions, and pressures between 3 and 45 bars were used. In gliomas, metastases, epilepsy surgery, and hemangioblastoma, the tissue was dissected at pressures between 3 and 17 bars, which preserved blood vessels. Dissection of meningiomas and the ICA stenosis required higher pressures (between 20 and 45 bars); with these pressures, blood vessels were also dissected.

Conclusions. These results indicate that the waterjet dissection procedure can be used intraoperatively without complications. This device appears to be particularly suitable for the dissection of highly vascularized gliomas or normal brain tissue, in which tissue dissection with sparing of blood vessels can be achieved. To prove that this is a useful addition to the neurosurgical armamentarium, reduction of blood loss or postoperative brain edema compared with conventional methods should be demonstrated in future studies.