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Serge Marbacher, Itai Mendelowitsch, Basil Erwin Grüter, Michael Diepers, Luca Remonda and Javier Fandino

OBJECTIVE

During the last decade, improvements in real-time, high-resolution imaging of surgically exposed cerebral vasculature have been realized with the successful introduction of intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICGVA) and technical advances in intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA). With the availability of 3D intraoperative DSA (3D-iDSA) in hybrid operating rooms, the present study offers a contemporary comparison for rates of accuracy and discordance.

METHODS

In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, 140 consecutive patients underwent microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in a hybrid operating room. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, aneurysm-specific characteristics, intraoperative ICGVA and 3D-iDSA findings, and the need for intraoperative clip readjustment. The authors defined the discordance rate of the two modalities as a false-negative finding that necessitated clip repositioning after 3D-iDSA.

RESULTS

In 120 patients, ICGVA and 3D-iDSA were used to evaluate 134 IA obliterations. Of 215 clips used, 29 (14%) were repositioned intraoperatively, improving the surgical result in all 29 patients (24%). Repositioning was prompted by visual inspection and microvascular Doppler ultrasonography in 8 (28%), ICGVA in 13 (45%), and 3D-iDSA in 7 (24%) patients. Clip repositioning was needed in 7 patients (6%) based on 3D-iDSA, yielding an ICGVA accuracy rate of 94%. Five (71%) of the ICGVA–3D-iDSA discordances that prompted clip repositioning occurred at the anterior communicating artery complex.

CONCLUSIONS

A combination of vascular monitoring techniques most often achieved correct intraoperative interpretation of complete IA occlusion and parent artery integrity. Compared with 3D-iDSA imaging, ICGVA demonstrated high accuracy. Despite the relatively low discordance rate, iDSA was confirmed to be the gold standard. Improved imaging quality, including 3D-iDSA, supports its routine use in IA surgery, obviating the need for postoperative DSA.

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Serge Marbacher, Elisabeth Klinger, Lucia Schwyzer, Ingeborg Fischer, Edin Nevzati, Michael Diepers, Ulrich Roelcke, Ali-Reza Fathi, Daniel Coluccia and Javier Fandino

Object

The accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for determining how much to resect and therefore for the clinical outcome of patients with brain tumors. In recent years, guidance with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)–induced intraoperative fluorescence has proven to be a useful surgical adjunct for gross-total resection of high-grade gliomas. The clinical utility of 5-ALA in resection of brain tumors other than glioblastomas has not yet been established. The authors assessed the frequency of positive 5-ALA fluorescence in a cohort of patients with primary brain tumors and metastases.

Methods

The authors conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 531 patients with intracranial tumors treated by 5-ALA–guided resection or biopsy. They analyzed patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative liver function test results, intraoperative tumor fluorescence, and histological data. They also screened discharge summaries for clinical adverse effects resulting from the administration of 5-ALA. Intraoperative qualitative 5-ALA fluorescence (none, mild, moderate, and strong) was documented by the surgeon and dichotomized into negative and positive fluorescence.

Results

A total of 458 cases qualified for final analysis. The highest percentage of 5-ALA–positive fluorescence in open resection was found in glioblastomas (96%, n = 99/103). Among other tumors, 5-ALA–positive fluorescence was detected in 88% (n = 21/32) of anaplastic gliomas (WHO Grade III), 40% (n = 8/19) of low-grade gliomas (WHO Grade II), no (n = 0/3) WHO Grade I gliomas, and 77% (n = 85/110) of meningiomas. Among metastases, the highest percentage of 5-ALA–positive fluorescence was detected in adenocarcinomas (48%, n = 13/27). Low rates or absence of positive fluorescence was found among pituitary adenomas (8%, n = 1/12) and schwannomas (0%, n = 0/7). Biopsies of high-grade primary brain tumors showed positive rates of fluorescence similar to those recorded for open resection. No clinical adverse effects associated with use of 5-ALA were observed. Only 1 patient had clinically silent transient elevation of liver enzymes.

Conclusions

Study findings suggest that the administration of 5-ALA as a surgical adjunct for resection and biopsy of primary brain tumors and brain metastases is safe. In light of the high rate of positive fluorescence in high-grade gliomas other than glioblastomas, meningiomas, and a variety of metastatic cancers, 5-ALA seems to be a promising tool for enhancing intraoperative identification of neoplastic tissue and optimizing the extent of resection.