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Christopher S. Eddleman, Michael C. Hurley, Bernard R. Bendok, and H. Hunt Batjer

Most cavernous carotid aneurysms (CCAs) are considered benign lesions, most often asymptomatic, and to have a natural history with a low risk of life-threatening complications. However, several conditions may exist in which treatment of these aneurysms should be considered. Several options are currently available regarding the management of CCAs with resultant good outcomes, namely expectant management, luminal preservation strategies with or without addressing the aneurysm directly, and Hunterian strategies with or without revascularization procedures. In this article, we discuss the sometimes difficult decision regarding whether to treat CCAs. We consider the natural history of several types of CCAs, the clinical presentation, the current modalities of CCA management and their outcomes to aid in the management of this heterogeneous group of cerebral aneurysms.

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Michael C. Hurley, Pamela H. Nguyen, Arthur J. DiPatri, and Ali Shaibani

The authors describe what is, to their knowledge, the first reported case of the anomalous origin of an internal carotid artery from the pulmonary artery. An otherwise asymptomatic 6-year-old girl, who presented with headaches and hypertension, underwent a comprehensive workup that revealed extensive meningeal and cerebral artery anastomoses to the left internal carotid artery—itself arising from the origin of the left pulmonary artery. This unique anatomical anomaly, caused by a disturbed pattern of aortic arch regression, resulted in a right-to-left vascular shunt into the pulmonary artery and a disturbance of intracranial artery flow patterns, complicating the management options.

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Maryam Soltanolkotabi, Samantha E. Schoeneman, Tord D. Alden, Michael C. Hurley, Sameer A. Ansari, Arthur J. DiPatri Jr., Tadanori Tomita, and Ali Shaibani

Object

The authors undertook this study to assess the safety and efficacy of Onyx embolization in the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pediatric patients.

Methods

All pediatric Onyx embolization of intracranial AVM cases performed consecutively at a single children's hospital over a 5-year period were collected and evaluated.

Results

Twenty-five patients (mean age 10.5 years) underwent a total of 38 procedures. An aggregate of 56 pedicles were embolized (mean 1.47 per session). The Spetzler-Martin grade was determined in all cases. Onyx embolization resulted in complete obliteration of the AVM in 3 cases (12%) and partial obliteration in 22 cases (88%). A total of 23 patients underwent surgical treatment. The mean preoperative AVM devascularization in these cases was 72%. One patient was treated with radiosurgery following Onyx embolization. Overall, 10 complications occurred in a total of 38 procedures (26.3%). None of the complications resulted in permanent neurological morbidity. The rate of transient neurological complications was 10.5% (4 of 38 procedures) and the rate of transient nonneurological complications was 5.3% (2 of 38 procedures). The remaining 4 complications were clinically silent (rate of 10.5%). There were no procedure-related deaths in this study population. There was no significant difference in patients with and without complications in terms of demographic characteristics, AVM grade, or embolization features (p ≥ 0.2). Deep venous drainage was associated with higher complication rates (p = 0.03).

Conclusions

Onyx utilization is feasible for preoperative or primary embolization in the treatment of pediatric intracranial AVMs; however, the spectrum of complications encountered is broad, and attention must be paid to the technical nuances of and indications for its use to avoid many potential dangerous effects. Although the overall complication rates were higher than expected, all were either clinically silent or had only transient clinical effects. Thus, this experience suggests that Onyx embolization can be performed safely with a low rate of permanent morbidity in pediatric patients harboring these difficult lesions.

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Maryam Soltanolkotabi, Shahram Rahimi, Michael C. Hurley, Robin M. Bowman, Eric J. Russell, Sameer A. Ansari, and Ali Shaibani

The authors report on the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with a reduced level of activity, macrocephaly, prominent scalp veins, and decreased left-sided visual acuity. Imaging workup demonstrated generalized cerebral volume loss, bilateral chronic subdural hematomas, absent left sigmoid sinus, hypoplastic left transverse sinus, and severe focal weblike stenosis of the right sigmoid sinus. Right sigmoid sinus angioplasty and stent insertion was performed, with an immediate reduction in the transduced intracranial venous pressure gradient across the stenosis (from 22 to 3 mm Hg). Postprocedural diminution of prominent scalp and forehead veins and spinal venous collateral vessels was followed by a progressive improvement in visual acuity and physical activity over a 1-year follow-up period, supporting the efficacy of angioplasty and stent insertion in intracranial venous outflow obstruction.

There are multiple potential causes of intracranial venous hypertension in children. Development of dural sinus stenosis in infancy may be one such cause, mimicking the clinical presentation of other causes such as vein of Galen malformations. This condition can be ameliorated by early endovascular revascularization.

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Gordon M. Burke, Allan M. Burke, Arun K. Sherma, Michael C. Hurley, H. Hunt Batjer, and Bernard R. Bendok

Moyamoya, meaning a “hazy puff of smoke” in Japanese, is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease involving bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the terminal portion of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and/or the proximal portions of the anterior cerebral arteries and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). The Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan has defined 4 types of moyamoya disease (MMD): ischemic, hemorrhagic, epileptic, and “other.” The ischemic type has been shown to predominate in childhood, while the hemorrhagic type is more often observed in the adult population. The highest prevalence of MMD is found in Japan, with a higher female to male ratio. Studies have shown a possible genetic association of MMD linked to chromosome 17 in Japanese cases as well as in cases found in other demographics. During autopsy, intracerebral hematoma is found and most commonly serves as the major cause of death in patients with MMD. Moyamoya vessels at the base of the brain are composed of medium-sized or small muscular arteries emanating from the circle of Willis, mainly the intracranial portions of ICAs, anterior choroidal arteries, and posterior cerebral arteries, forming complex channels that connect with distal positions of the MCAs. Off of these channels are small tortuous and dilated vessels that penetrate into the base of the brain at the site of the thalamoperforate and lenticulostriate arteries. On angiography, there is the characteristic stenosis or occlusion bilaterally at the terminal portion of the ICAs as well as the moyamoya vessels at the base of the brain. Six angiographic stages have been described, from Stage 1, which reveals a narrowing of the carotid forks, to Stage 6, in which the moyamoya vessels disappear and collateral circulation is produced solely from the external carotid arteries. Cases with milder symptoms are usually treated conservatively; however, more severe symptomatic cases are treated using revascularization procedures. Surgical treatments are divided into 3 types: direct, indirect, and combined/other methods. Direct bypass includes superficial temporal artery-MCA bypass or use of other graft types. Indirect procedures bring in circulation to the intracranial regions by introducing newly developed vasculature from newly approximated tissues. These procedures may not be enough to prevent further ischemia; therefore, a combination of direct and indirect procedures is more suitable. This article will give a review of the epidemiology, natural history, pathology, pathophysiology, and diagnostic criteria, including imaging, and briefly describe the surgical treatment of MMD.

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Christopher S. Eddleman, Michael C. Hurley, Andrew M. Naidech, H. Hunt Batjer, and Bernard R. Bendok

The second leading cause of death and disability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is delayed cerebral ischemia due to vasospasm. Although up to 70% of patients have been shown to have angiographic evidence of vasospasm, only 20–30% will present with clinical changes, including mental status changes and neurological deficits that necessitate acute management. Endovascular capabilities have progressed to become viable options in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. The rationale for intraarterial therapy includes the fact that morbidity and mortality rates have not changed in recent years despite optimized noninvasive medical care. In this report, the authors discuss the most common endovascular options—namely intraarterial vasodilators and transluminal balloon angioplasty—from the standpoint of mechanism, efficacy, limitations, and complications as well as the treatment algorithms for cerebral vasospasm used at our institution.

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Nathan A. Shlobin, Eytan Raz, Maksim Shapiro, Jeffrey R. Clark, Steven C. Hoffman, Ali Shaibani, Michael C. Hurley, Sameer A. Ansari, Babak S. Jahromi, Nader S. Dahdaleh, and Matthew B. Potts

OBJECTIVE

Spinal cord infarction due to interruption of the spinal vascular supply during anterior thoracolumbar surgery is a rare but devastating complication. Here, the authors sought to summarize the data on this complication in terms of its incidence, risk factors, and operative considerations. They also sought to summarize the relevant spinal vascular anatomy.

METHODS

They performed a systematic literature review of the PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases to identify reports of spinal cord vascular injury related to anterior thoracolumbar spine procedures as well as operative adjuncts and considerations related to management of the segmental artery ligation during such anterior procedures. Titles and abstracts were screened, and studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed in full.

RESULTS

Of 1200 articles identified on the initial screening, 16 met the inclusion criteria and consisted of 2 prospective cohort studies, 10 retrospective cohort studies, and 4 case reports. Four studies reported on the incidence of spinal cord ischemia with anterior thoracolumbar surgery, which ranged from 0% to 0.75%. Eight studies presented patient-level data for 13 cases of spinal cord ischemia after anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery. Proposed risk factors for vasculogenic spinal injury with anterior thoracolumbar surgery included hyperkyphosis, prior spinal deformity surgery, combined anterior-posterior procedures, left-sided approaches, operating on the concavity side of a scoliotic curve, and intra- or postoperative hypotension. In addition, eight studies analyzed operative considerations to reduce spinal cord ischemic complications in anterior thoracolumbar surgery, including intraoperative neuromonitoring and preoperative spinal angiography.

CONCLUSIONS

While spinal cord infarction related to anterior thoracolumbar surgery is rare, it warrants proper consideration in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative periods. The spine surgeon must be aware of the relevant risk factors as well as the pre- and intraoperative adjuncts that can minimize these risks. Most importantly, an understanding of the relevant spinal vascular anatomy is critical to minimizing the risks associated with anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery.

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Jason S. Day, Michael C. Hurley, Mohamad Chmayssani, Rudy J. Rahme, Mark J. Alberts, Richard A. Bernstein, Guilherme Dabus, Ali Shaibani, and Bernard R. Bendok

Object

Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke delivers direct therapy at the site of an occluded cerebral artery and can be employed beyond the 3–4.5-hour window limit set for intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. In this paper, the authors report their experience with various endovascular therapies in acute ischemic stroke.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review of their clinical database for acute ischemic stroke in large-vessel cerebral territories that underwent endovascular treatment between May 2005 and February 2009. Endovascular treatment was defined as pharmacological and/or mechanical intervention, angioplasty, stenting, or a combination of these methods. Admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale scores were recorded. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores of 0, 1, 2A, 2B, and 3 were used to define recanalization.

Results

Forty procedures were performed in 39 patients, with 1 patient having sequential bilateral strokes. Nine patients were lost to follow-up after discharge. Strokes in the carotid artery circulation occurred in 82.5% of cases, and those in the vertebral-basilar territory occurred in 17.5%. The Merci device was used in 22 (55%) of 40 procedures, and the Penumbra device in 9 (22.5%) of 40. Angioplasty was performed in 15 (37.5%) of 40 procedures, and intraarterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was administered in 23 (57.5%) of 40 procedures. In 23 (57.5%) of 40 cases, multiple recanalization methods were used. The recanalization rate for all methods was 60%. The recanalization rate from TIMI Score 0/1 occlusions was 71.4% (20 of 28). An estimated modified Rankin Scale score of ≤ 2 was obtained in 11 (36.7%) of 30 cases. The overall mortality rate was 26.7% (8 of 30). Intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours postprocedure was noted in 17 (42.5%) of 40 cases, 3 (7.5%) of which were symptomatic.

Conclusions

The authors' institution performs endovascular stroke treatment with a safety and efficacy profile comparable to those of other major endovascular stroke therapy studies. Recanalization was associated with an improved clinical outcome. Protocols to maximize efficient triage of patients and better documentation of stroke treatments can assist in further studies.

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Tahaamin Shokuhfar, Michael C. Hurley, Anas Al-Smadi, Sameer A. Ansari, Matthew B. Potts, Babak S. Jahromi, Tord D. Alden, and Ali Shaibani

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper was assess the efficacy and safety of using the MynxGrip arterial closure device in pediatric neuroendovascular procedures where the use of closure devices remains off-label despite their validation and widespread use in adults.

METHODS

A retrospective review of all pediatric patients who underwent diagnostic or interventional neuroendovascular procedures at the authors’ institution was performed. MynxGrip use was predicated by an adequate depth of subcutaneous tissue and common femoral artery (CFA) diameter. Patients remained on supine bedrest for 2 hours after diagnostic procedures and for 3 hours after therapeutic procedures. Patient demographics, procedural details, hemostasis status, and complications were recorded.

RESULTS

Over 36 months, 83 MynxGrip devices were deployed in 53 patients (23 male and 30 female patients; mean age 14 years) who underwent neuroendovascular procedures. The right-side CFA was the main point of access for most procedures. The mean CFA diameter was 6.24 mm and ranged from 4 mm to 8.5 mm. Diagnostic angiography comprised 46% of the procedures. A single device failure occurred without any sequelae; the device was extracted, and hemostasis was achieved by manual compression with the placement of a Safeguard compression device. No other immediate or delayed major complications were recorded.

CONCLUSIONS

MynxGrip can be used safely in the pediatric population for effective hemostasis and has the advantage of earlier mobilization.

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Aravind G. Kalluri, Madhav Sukumaran, Pouya Nazari, Pedram Golnari, Sameer A. Ansari, Michael C. Hurley, Ali Shaibani, Babak S. Jahromi, and Matthew B. Potts

OBJECTIVE

The carotid cave is a unique intradural region located along the medial aspect of the internal carotid artery. Small carotid cave aneurysms confined within this space are bound by the carotid sulcus of the sphenoid bone and are thought to have a low risk of rupture or growth. However, there is a lack of data on the natural history of this subset of aneurysms.

METHODS

The authors present a retrospective case series of 290 small (≤ 4 mm) carotid cave aneurysms evaluated and managed at their institution between January 2000 and June 2017.

RESULTS

No patient presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage attributable to a carotid cave aneurysm, and there were no instances of aneurysm rupture or growth during 911.0 aneurysm-years of clinical follow-up or 726.3 aneurysm-years of imaging follow-up, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

This series demonstrates the benign nature of small carotid cave aneurysms.