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  • Author or Editor: Michael Brendan Cloney x
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Michael Brendan Cloney, Jack Goergen, Benjamin S. Hopkins, Ekamjeet Singh Dhillon and Nader S. Dahdaleh

OBJECTIVE

Venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality after spine surgery. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) following spine surgery exhibit high-risk clinical characteristics.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 1269 ICU patients who had undergone spine surgery between January 1, 2009, and May 31, 2015. Relevant demographic, procedural, and outcome variables were collected.

RESULTS

Patients admitted to the ICU postoperatively had a postoperative VTE rate of 10.2%, compared to 2.5% among all spine surgery patients during the study period. ICU patients had a higher comorbid disease burden (odds ratio [OR] 1.45, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have a history of a bleeding disorder (2.60% vs 0.46%, OR 2.85, p = 0.028), receive a transfusion (OR 4.81, p < 0.001), have a fracture repaired (OR 4.30, p < 0.001), have an estimated blood loss > 500 ml (OR 1.95, p = 0.009), have an osteotomy (OR 20.47, p = 0.006), or have a corpectomy (OR 3.48, p = 0.007) than patients not admitted to the ICU. There was a significant difference in time to VTE between patients undergoing osteotomy and patients undergoing scoliosis corrections without osteotomy (p = 0.0431), patients with fractures (p = 0.0113), and patients undergoing fusions for indications other than scoliosis or fracture (p = 0.0056). Patients who developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) during their ICU stay were more likely to have received a prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement (OR 8.98, p < 0.001), have undergone an interbody fusion procedure (OR 2.38, p = 0.037), have a history of DVT (OR 3.25, p < 0.001), and have shorter surgery times (OR 0.30, p = 0.002). Patients who developed a pulmonary embolism (PE) during the ICU stay were more likely to have a history of PE (OR 12.68 p = 0.015), history of DVT (OR 5.11, p = 0.042), fracture diagnosis (OR 7.02, p = 0.040), and diagnosis of scoliosis (OR 7.78, p = 0.024). Patients with higher BMIs (OR 0.85, p = 0.036) and those who received anticoagulation treatment (OR 0.16, p = 0.031) were less likely to develop a PE during their ICU stay.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients admitted to the ICU following spine surgery have a higher rate of VTE than non-ICU patients. Time to VTE varied by pathology. Factors independently associated with VTE in the ICU are distinct from factors otherwise associated with VTE. Some factors are independently associated with VTE throughout the 30-day postoperative period, while others are associated with VTE specifically during the initial ICU stay or after leaving the ICU.

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Benjamin S. Hopkins, Mit R. Patel, Jonathan Tad Yamaguchi, Michael Brendan Cloney and Nader S. Dahdaleh

OBJECTIVE

Press Ganey surveys are common modalities used to assess patient satisfaction scores in an outpatient setting. Despite the existence of data, neurosurgical and orthopedic literature on patient satisfaction following spinal surgery is scarce.

METHODS

A total of 17,853 patients who underwent spinal procedures at the authors’ institution were analyzed retrospectively for Press Ganey survey participation. Appropriate demographic, surgical, comorbidity, and complication data were collected; 1936 patients had patient satisfaction survey data, and further survey metrics were collected for this subset of patients.

RESULTS

Male patients, patients with urgent/emergency procedures, and patients with longer length of stay (LOS) were less likely to fill out Press Ganey surveys (OR 0.822, p < 0.001; OR 0.781, p = 0.010; and OR 0.983, p < 0.001, respectively). Posterior approach was negatively associated with Press Ganey participation (OR 0.907, p = 0.055). Patients undergoing fusion procedures were more likely to participate in Press Ganey surveys (OR 1.419, p < 0.001). Of the patients who filled out surveys, there were no positive predictors associated with receiving perfect scores on Press Ganey surveys. High Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 0.959, p = 0.02), increasing elapsed time since surgery or discharge (OR 0.996, p = 0.03), and increasing LOS (OR 0.965, p = 0.009) were all negatively associated with receiving a perfect score. Patients who underwent a posterior-approach procedure compared with other approaches were less likely to report a low Press Ganey score (OR 0.297, p = 0.046). Patient sex and race did not influence the likelihood of receiving perfect or low Press Ganey scores. Finally, the perceived skill of the surgeon was not a significant predictor for perfect (p > 0.99) or low (p = 0.828) Press Ganey scores.

CONCLUSIONS

Patient participation in Press Ganey surveys strongly correlated with preoperative factors such as procedure approach and type, as well as postoperative factors such as LOS and complications. No factors were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving a perfect Press Ganey score. Similarly, LOS and time elapsed since surgery to survey completion were significant negative predictors of perfect Press Ganey scores. Skill of surgeon, sex, and race did not correlate with a predictive value for Press Ganey outcomes. In addition, overall comorbid disease burden was found to be a significant negative predictor for high patient satisfaction scores. Further study on predictors of patient satisfaction within spine surgery is needed to better assist physicians in improving the surgical experience for patients.

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Benjamin S. Hopkins, Mit R. Patel, Jonathan Tad Yamaguchi, Michael Brendan Cloney and Nader S. Dahdaleh

OBJECTIVE

Patient satisfaction is a new and important metric in the American healthcare system. The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) is a common modality used to assess patient satisfaction in inpatient settings. Despite the existence of data, neurosurgical literature on patient satisfaction following spinal surgery is scarce.

METHODS

A total of 17,853 patients who underwent spinal procedures at the authors’ institution were analyzed retrospectively for HCAHPS survey participation. Appropriate demographic, surgical, comorbidity, and complication data were collected; 1118 patients had patient satisfaction survey data, and further survey metrics were collected for this subset of patients.

RESULTS

Male patients, patients with urgent/emergency procedures, and patients with a longer length of stay were less likely to complete an HCAHPS survey (OR 0.820, p < 0.001; OR 0.818, p = 0.042; and OR 0.983, p < 0.001, respectively). Posterior approach was negatively associated with HCAHPS survey participation (OR 0.868, p = 0.007). Patients undergoing fusion procedures were more likely to participate in HCAHPS surveys (OR 1.440, p < 0.001). Of the completed HCAHPS surveys, there were no positive predictors associated with perfect scores. High Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 0.931, p = 0.007), increasing elapsed time since surgery or discharge (OR 0.992, p = 0.004), and increasing length of stay (OR 0.928, p < 0.001) were all negatively associated with a perfect score. Finally, patient sex and race did not influence the likelihood of a perfect or low survey score.

CONCLUSIONS

Participation in HCAHPS surveys was correlated with preoperative and postoperative factors. Among these, procedure approach and type, length of stay, and complications seemed to influence participation the most. No factors were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving a perfect score. Similarly, length of stay and time elapsed since surgery to survey completion were significant negative predictors of receiving perfect HCAHPS survey scores. Increasing comorbid burden was also found to be a negative predictor for high scores. Further study on predictors of inpatient satisfaction within spine surgery is needed.