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Markus M. Fitzek, Allan F. Thornton, James D. Rabinov, Michael H. Lev, Francisco S. Pardo, John E. Munzenrider, Paul Okunieff, Marc Bussière, Ilana Braun, Fred H. Hochberg, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte, Norbert J. Liebsch and Griffith R. Harsh IV

Object. After conventional doses of 55 to 65 Gy of fractionated irradiation, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) usually recurs at its original location. This institutional phase II study was designed to assess whether dose escalation to 90 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) with conformal protons and photons in accelerated fractionation would improve local tumor control and patient survival.

Methods. Twenty-three patients were enrolled in this study. Eligibility criteria included age between 18 and 70 years, Karnofsky Performance Scale score of greater than or equal to 70, residual tumor volume of less than 60 ml, and a supratentorial, unilateral tumor.

Actuarial survival rates at 2 and 3 years were 34% and 18%, respectively. The median survival time was 20 months, with four patients alive 22 to 60 months postdiagnosis. Analysis by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group prognostic criteria or Medical Research Council indices showed a 5- to 11-month increase in median survival time over those of comparable conventionally treated patients. All patients developed new areas of gadolinium enhancement during the follow-up period. Histological examination of tissues obtained at biopsy, resection, or autopsy was conducted in 15 of 23 patients. Radiation necrosis only was demonstrated in seven patients, and their survival was significantly longer than that of patients with recurrent tumor (p = 0.01). Tumor regrowth occurred most commonly in areas that received doses of 60 to 70 CGE or less; recurrent tumor was found in only one case in the 90-CGE volume.

Conclusions. A dose of 90 CGE in accelerated fractionation prevented central recurrence in almost all cases. The median survival time was extended to 20 months, likely as a result of central control. Tumors will usually recur in areas immediately peripheral to this 90-CGE volume, but attempts to extend local control by enlarging the central volume are likely to be limited by difficulties with radiation necrosis.

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Andrej Pala, Fadi Awad, Michael Braun, Michal Hlavac, Arthur Wunderlich, Bernd Schmitz, Christian Rainer Wirtz and Jan Coburger

OBJECTIVE

The gold standard for evaluation of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt position, dislocation, or disconnection is conventional radiography. Yet, assessment with this modality can be challenging because of low image quality and can result in repetitive radiation exposure with high fluctuation in the radiation dose. Recently, CT-based radiation doses have been significantly reduced by using low-dose protocols. Thus, whole-body low-dose CT (LDCT) has become applicable for routine use in VP shunt evaluation. The authors here compared image quality and approximate radiation dose between radiography and LDCT in patients with implanted VP shunt systems.

METHODS

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt systems have been investigated with LDCT scanning at the authors’ department since 2015. A consecutive series of 57 patients (70 investigations) treated between 2015 and 2016 was retrospectively assessed. A historical patient cohort that had been evaluated with radiography was compared with the LDCT patients in terms of radiation dose and image quality. Three independent observers evaluated projection of the valve pressure level and correct intraperitoneal position, as well as complete shunt projection, using a Likert-type scale of 1–5, where 1 indicated “not assessable” and 5 meant “assessable with high accuracy.” Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for analysis.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven radiographs (38.6%) and 43 LDCT scans (61.4%) were analyzed. The median dose-length product (DLP) of the LDCT scans was 100 mGy·cm (range 59.9–183 mGy·cm). The median total dose-area product (DAP) of the radiographic images was 3177 mGy·cm2 (range 641–13,833 mGy·cm2). The estimated effective dose (EED) was significantly lower with the LDCT scan (p < 0.001). The median EED was 4.93 and 1.90 mSv for radiographs and LDCT, respectively. Significantly better identification of the abdominal position of the distal shunt catheter was achieved with LDCT (p < 0.001). Simultaneously, significantly improved visualization of the entire shunt system was realized with this technique (p < 0.001). On the contrary, identification of the valve settings was significantly worse with LDCT (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Whole-body LDCT scanning allows good visualization of the distal catheter after VP shunt placement. Despite the fact that only a rough estimation of effective doses is possible in a direct comparison of LDCT and radiography, the data showed that shunt assessment via LDCT does not lead to greater radiation exposure. Thus, especially in difficult anatomical conditions, as in patients who have undergone multiple intraabdominal surgeries, have a high BMI, or are immobile, the use of LDCT shunt evaluation has high clinical value. Further data are needed to determine the value of LDCT for the evaluation of complications or radiation dose in pediatric patients.