Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 14 items for

  • Author or Editor: Michael Bohl x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Seungwon Yoon, Michael A. Mooney, Michael A. Bohl, John P. Sheehy, Peter Nakaji, Andrew S. Little and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

With drastic changes to the health insurance market, patient cost sharing has significantly increased in recent years. However, the patient financial burden, or out-of-pocket (OOP) costs, for surgical procedures is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to analyze patient OOP spending in cranial neurosurgery and identify drivers of OOP spending growth.

METHODS

For 6569 consecutive patients who underwent cranial neurosurgery from 2013 to 2016 at the authors’ institution, the authors created univariate and multivariate mixed-effects models to investigate the effect of patient demographic and clinical factors on patient OOP spending. The authors examined OOP payments stratified into 10 subsets of case categories and created a generalized linear model to study the growth of OOP spending over time.

RESULTS

In the multivariate model, case categories (craniotomy for pain, tumor, and vascular lesions), commercial insurance, and out-of-network plans were significant predictors of higher OOP payments for patients (all p < 0.05). Patient spending varied substantially across procedure types, with patients undergoing craniotomy for pain ($1151 ± $209) having the highest mean OOP payments. On average, commercially insured patients spent nearly twice as much in OOP payments as the overall population. From 2013 to 2016, the mean patient OOP spending increased 17%, from $598 to $698 per patient encounter. Commercially insured patients experienced more significant growth in OOP spending, with a cumulative rate of growth of 42% ($991 in 2013 to $1403 in 2016).

CONCLUSIONS

Even after controlling for inflation, case-mix differences, and partial fiscal periods, OOP spending for cranial neurosurgery patients significantly increased from 2013 to 2016. The mean OOP spending for commercially insured neurosurgical patients exceeded $1400 in 2016, with an average annual growth rate of 13%. As patient cost sharing in health insurance plans becomes more prevalent, patients and providers must consider the potential financial burden for patients receiving specialized neurosurgical care.

Restricted access

Michael A. Mooney, Scott Brigeman, Michael A. Bohl, Elias D. Simon, John P. Sheehy, Steve W. Chang and Robert F. Spetzler

OBJECTIVE

Overlapping surgery is a controversial subject in medicine today; however, few studies have examined the outcomes of this practice. The authors analyzed outcomes of patients with acutely ruptured saccular aneurysms who were treated with microsurgical clipping in a prospectively collected database from the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial. Acute and long-term outcomes for overlapping versus nonoverlapping cases were compared.

METHODS

During the study period, 241 patients with ruptured saccular aneurysms underwent microsurgical clipping. Patients were separated into overlapping (n = 123) and nonoverlapping (n = 118) groups based on surgical start/stop times. Outcomes at discharge and at 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, and 6 years after surgery were analyzed.

RESULTS

Patient variables (e.g., age, smoking status, cardiovascular history, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, and aneurysm size) were similar between the 2 groups. Aneurysm locations were similar, with the exception of the overlapping group having more posterior circulation aneurysms (18/123 [15%]) than the nonoverlapping group (8/118 [7%]) (p = 0.0495). Confirmed aneurysm obliteration at discharge was significantly higher for the overlapping group (109/119 [91.6%]) than for the nonoverlapping group (95/116 [81.9%]) (p = 0.03). Hospital length of stay, discharge location, and proportions of patients with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score > 2 at discharge and up to 6 years postoperatively were similar. The mean and median mRS, Glasgow Outcome Scale, Mini–Mental State Examination, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Barthel Index scores at all time points were not statistically different between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with nonoverlapping surgery, overlapping surgery was not associated with worse outcomes for any variable at any time point, despite the complexity of the surgical management in this patient population. These findings should be considered during the discussion of future guidelines on the practice of overlapping surgery.

Full access

Mark P. Garrett, Richard W. Williamson, Michael A. Bohl, C. Roger Bird and Nicholas Theodore

OBJECTIVE

For a diagnosis of brain death (BD), ancillary testing is performed if patient factors prohibit a complete clinical examination and apnea test. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guidelines identify cerebral angiography (CA), cerebral scintigraphy, electroencephalography, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography as accepted ancillary tests. CA is widely considered the gold standard of these, as it provides the most reliable assessment of intracranial blood flow. CT angiography (CTA) is a noninvasive and widely available study that is also capable of identifying absent or severely diminished intracranial blood flow, but it is not included among the AAN's accepted ancillary tests because of insufficient evidence demonstrating its reliability. The objective of this study was to assess the statistical performance of CTA in diagnosing BD, using clinical criteria alone or clinical criteria plus CA as the gold-standard comparisons.

METHODS

The authors prospectively enrolled 22 adult patients undergoing workup for BD. All patients had cranial imaging and clinical examination results consistent with BD. In patients who met the AAN clinical criteria for BD, the authors performed CA and CTA so that both tests could be compared with the gold-standard clinical criteria. In cases that required ancillary testing, CA was performed as a confirmatory study, and CTA was then performed to compare against clinical criteria plus CA. Radiographic data were evaluated by an independent neuroradiologist. Test characteristics for CTA were calculated.

RESULTS

Four patients could not complete the standard BD workup and were excluded from analysis. Of the remaining 18 patients, 16 met AAN criteria for BD, 9 of whom required ancillary testing with CA. Of the 16 patients, 2 who also required CA ancillary testing were found to have persistent intracranial flow and were not declared brain dead at that time. These patients also underwent CTA; the results were concordant with the CA results. Six patients who were diagnosed with BD on the basis of clinical criteria alone also underwent CA, with 100% sensitivity. For all 18 patients included in the study, CTA had a sensitivity of 75%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 33%.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical examination with or without CA remains the gold standard in BD testing. Studies assessing the statistical performance of CTA in BD testing should compare CTA to these gold standards. The statistical performance of CTA in BD testing is comparable to several of the nationally accepted ancillary tests. These data add to the growing medical literature supporting the use of CTA as a reliable ancillary test in BD testing.

Restricted access

Samira Zabihyan, Hamid Etemadrezaie, Humain Baharvahdat, Aslan Baradaran, Babak Ganjeefar, Michael A. Bohl and Peter Nakaji

The authors report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a third ventricle colloid cyst. She presented with prolonged headache, nausea, vomiting, and loss of visual acuity with bilateral papilledema. Computed tomography and MRI revealed severe biventricular hydrocephalus with transependymal periventricular fluid and a minimally enhancing cystic mass of the third ventricle. The patient was diagnosed with a colloid cyst and obstructive hydrocephalus, and endoscopic resection with ablation of the cyst remnant was performed. While attempting to extricate the cyst from the patient's head, control of the cyst was lost and the cyst fell into the lateral ventricle beyond the surgeon's view. Postoperative imaging showed that the cyst had settled in the right occipital horn. After 3 years of follow-up, imaging suggests growth of the cyst in its new position without necrosis or displacement on prone imaging.

Restricted access

Michael A. Bohl, Nikolay L. Martirosyan, Zachary W. Killeen, Evgenii Belykh, Joseph M. Zabramski, Robert F. Spetzler and Mark C. Preul

Despite an overwhelming history demonstrating the potential of hypothermia to rescue and preserve the brain and spinal cord after injury or disease, clinical trials from the last 50 years have failed to show a convincing benefit. This comprehensive review provides the historical context needed to consider the current status of clinical hypothermia research and a view toward the future direction for this field. For millennia, accounts of hypothermic patients surviving typically fatal circumstances have piqued the interest of physicians and prompted many of the early investigations into hypothermic physiology. In 1650, for example, a 22-year-old woman in Oxford suffered a 30-minute execution by hanging on a notably cold and wet day but was found breathing hours later when her casket was opened in a medical school dissection laboratory. News of her complete recovery inspired pioneers such as John Hunter to perform the first complete and methodical experiments on life in a hypothermic state. Hunter’s work helped spark a scientific revolution in Europe that saw the overthrow of the centuries-old dogma that volitional movement was created by hydraulic nerves filling muscle bladders with cerebrospinal fluid and replaced this theory with animal electricity. Central to this paradigm shift was Giovanni Aldini, whose public attempts to reanimate the hypothermic bodies of executed criminals not only inspired tremendous scientific debate but also inspired a young Mary Shelley to write her novel Frankenstein. Dr. Temple Fay introduced hypothermia to modern medicine with his human trials on systemic and focal cooling. His work was derailed after Nazi physicians in Dachau used his results to justify their infamous experiments on prisoners of war. The latter half of the 20th century saw the introduction of hypothermic cerebrovascular arrest in neurosurgical operating rooms. The ebb and flow of neurosurgical interest in hypothermia that has since persisted reflect our continuing struggle to achieve the neuroprotective benefits of cooling while minimizing the systemic side effects.

Restricted access

Hasan A. Zaidi, Al-Wala Awad, Michael A. Bohl, Kristina Chapple, Laura Knecht, Heidi Jahnke, William L. White and Andrew S. Little

OBJECT

The comparative efficacy of microscopic and fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas has not been well studied despite the adoption of fully endoscopic surgery by many pituitary centers. The influence of surgeon experience has also not been examined in this setting. The authors therefore compared the extent of tumor resection (EOR) and the endocrine outcomes of 1 very experienced surgeon performing a microscopic transsphenoidal surgery technique with those of a less experienced surgeon using a fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery technique for resection of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in a concurrent series of patients.

METHODS

Post hoc analysis was conducted of a cohort of adult patients prospectively enrolled in a pituitary adenoma quality-of-life study between October 2011 and June 2014. Patients were followed up for 6 months after surgery. Patients were treated either by a less experienced surgeon (100 independent cases) who practices fully endoscopic surgery exclusively or by a very experienced surgeon (1800 independent cases) who practices microscopic surgery exclusively. Patient demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, hypopituitarism, complications, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. Tumor volumes and EOR were determined by formal volumetric analysis involving manual segmentation of MR images performed before surgery and within 6 months after surgery. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of EOR.

RESULTS

Fifty-five patients underwent fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, and 80 patients underwent fully microscopic transsphenoidal surgery. The baseline characteristics of the 2 treatment groups were well matched. EOR was similar between the endoscopic and microscopic groups, respectively, as estimated by gross-total resection rate (78.2% vs 81.3%, p = 0.67), percentage of tumor resected (99.2% vs 98.7%, p = 0.42), and volume of residual tumor (0.12 cm3 vs 0.20 cm3, p = 0.41). Multivariate modeling suggested that preoperative tumor volume was the most important predictor of EOR (p = 0.001). No difference was found in the development of anterior gland dysfunction (p > 0.14), but there was a higher incidence of permanent posterior gland dysfunction in the microscopic group (p = 0.04). Combined rates of major complications and unplanned readmissions were lower in the endoscopic group (p = 0.02), but individual complications were not significantly different.

CONCLUSIONS

A less experienced surgeon using a fully endoscopic technique was able to achieve outcomes similar to those of a very experienced surgeon using a microscopic technique in a cohort of patients with nonfunctioning tumors smaller than 60 cm3. The study raises the provocative notion that certain advantages afforded by the fully endoscopic technique may impact the learning curve in pituitary surgery for nonfunctioning adenomas.