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Open access

Michael B. Avery, Regin Jay Mallari, Garni Barkhoudarian, and Daniel F. Kelly

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objective was to compare the indications, outcomes, and anatomical limits of supraorbital (SO) and mini-pterional (MP) craniotomies in patients with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors, and to assess approach selection, utility of endoscopy, and surgical field overlap.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis was conducted of all brain tumor patients who underwent an SO or MP approach. The analyzed characteristics included pathology, endoscopy use, extent of resection, length of stay (LOS), and complications. On the basis of preoperative MRI data, tumor heatmaps were constructed to compare surgical access provided by both routes, including coronal projection heatmaps for parasellar tumors.

RESULTS

From 2007 to 2020, 158 patients underwent 173 (84.8%) SO craniotomies and 30 patients underwent 31 (15.2%) MP craniotomies; 71 (34.8%) procedures were reoperations. Of these 204 operations, 110 (63.6%) SO and 21 (67.7%) MP approaches were for extraaxial tumors (meningiomas in 65% and 76.2%, respectively). Gliomas and metastases together represented 84.1% and 70% of intraaxial tumors accessed with SO and MP approaches, respectively. Overall, 56.1% of tumors accessed with the SO approach and 41.9% of those accessed with the MP approach were in the parasellar region. Axial projection heatmaps showed that SO access extended along the entire ipsilateral and medial contralateral anterior cranial fossa, parasellar region, ipsilateral sylvian fissure, medial middle cranial fossa, and anterior midbrain, whereas MP access was limited to the ipsilateral middle cranial fossa, sylvian fissure, lateral parasellar region, and posterior aspect of anterior cranial fossa. Coronal projection heatmaps showed that parasellar access extended further superiorly with the SO approach compared with that of the MP approach. Endoscopy was utilized in 98 (56.6%) SO craniotomies and 7 (22.6%) MP craniotomies, with further tumor resection in 48 (49%) and 5 (71.4%) cases, respectively. Endoscope-assisted tumor removal was clustered in areas that were generally at farther distances from the craniotomy or in angled locations such as the cribriform plate region where microscopic visualization is limited. Gross-total or near-total resection was achieved in 120/173 (69%) SO approaches and 21/31 (68%) MP approaches. Major complications occurred in 11 (6.4%) SO approaches and 1 (3.2%) MP approach (p = 0.49). The median LOS decreased to 2 days in the last 2 years of the study.

CONCLUSIONS

This clinical experience suggests the SO and MP craniotomies are versatile, safe, and complementary approaches for tumors located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae and perisylvian and parasellar regions. The SO route, used in 85% of cases, achieved greater overall reach than the MP route. Both approaches may benefit from expanded visualization with endoscopy.

Full access

Michael B. Avery, Ahmed Alaqeel, Amy B. Bromley, Yong-Xiang Chen, John H. Wong, Muneer Eesa, and Alim P. Mitha

OBJECTIVE

Reliable animal models are an important aspect of translational research, especially for relatively uncommon clinical entities such as fusiform aneurysms. While several animal models exist, very few are tailored to cerebral fusiform aneurysms, which have unique attributes compared to abdominal fusiform aneurysms. The authors aimed to build from previous models to create a cerebral fusiform aneurysm model that is simple to use and reliable.

METHODS

Twelve female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to 3 groups: group E, elastase only; group C, CaCl2 only; group EC, elastase + CaCl2. All rabbits underwent surgical exposure of the right common carotid artery (CCA) and 20 minutes of peri-carotid incubation with their respective chemicals. Angiography was performed 6 weeks later for arterial dilation measurements, with 50% increase in diameter being defined as fusiform aneurysm formation. The arterial segments, along with the contralateral CCAs, were harvested and assessed histologically for wall component measurements and elastin semiquantification. A separate rabbit underwent aneurysm creation per the group EC protocol and was treated with an endovascular flow-diversion device.

RESULTS

All of the group EC rabbits developed fusiform aneurysms (mean dilation of 88%), while none of the group E or group C rabbits developed aneurysms (p = 0.001). Histological analysis revealed increased internal elastic lamina fragmentation in the group EC aneurysms, which also had less tunica intima hyperplasia. All aneurysms exhibited thinning of the tunica media and reduction in elastin content. The use of an endovascular flow-diverting stent was successful, with complete parent vessel remodeling, as expected, 4 weeks after deployment.

CONCLUSIONS

The peri-arterial application of combined elastase and CaCl2 to the CCA appears sufficient to reliably produce fusiform aneurysms after 6 weeks. Exposure to elastase or CaCl2 individually appears insufficient, despite the observed histological changes to the arterial wall. The proposed fusiform aneurysm model is able to accommodate endovascular devices, simulating the tortuous pathway experienced in using such devices in human cerebral aneurysms and thus is a satisfactory model to use in translational research.

Free access

Omaditya Khanna, Lohit Velagapudi, Somnath Das, Ahmad Sweid, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Fadi Al Saiegh, Michael B. Avery, Nohra Chalouhi, Richard F. Schmidt, Kalyan Sajja, M. Reid Gooch, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Pascal M. Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors aimed to investigate procedural and clinical outcomes between radial and femoral artery access in patients undergoing thrombectomy for acute stroke.

METHODS

The authors conducted a single-institution retrospective analysis of 104 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy, 52 via transradial access and 52 via traditional transfemoral access. They analyzed various procedural and clinical metrics between the two patient cohorts.

RESULTS

There was no difference between patient demographics or presenting symptoms of stroke severity between patients treated via transradial or transfemoral access. The mean procedural time was similar between the two treatment cohorts: 60.35 ± 36.81 minutes for the transradial group versus 65.50 ± 29.92 minutes for the transfemoral group (p = 0.451). The mean total fluoroscopy time for the procedure was similar between the two patient cohorts (20.31 ± 11.68 for radial vs 18.49 ± 11.78 minutes for femoral, p = 0.898). The majority of patients underwent thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b/3 revascularization, regardless of access site (92.3% for radial vs 94.2% for femoral, p = 0.696). There was no significant difference in the incidence of access site or periprocedural complications between the transradial and transfemoral cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS

Acute stroke intervention performed via transradial access is feasible and effective, with no significant difference in procedural and clinical outcomes compared with traditional transfemoral access. Larger studies are required to further validate the efficacy and limitations of transradial access for neurointerventional procedures.