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  • Author or Editor: Meng Qian x
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Uzma Samadani, Sameer Farooq, Robert Ritlop, Floyd Warren, Marleen Reyes, Elizabeth Lamm, Anastasia Alex, Elena Nehrbass, Radek Kolecki, Michael Jureller, Julia Schneider, Agnes Chen, Chen Shi, Neil Mendhiratta, Jason H. Huang, Meng Qian, Roy Kwak, Artem Mikheev, Henry Rusinek, Ajax George, Robert Fergus, Douglas Kondziolka, Paul P. Huang and R. Theodore Smith

OBJECT

Automated eye movement tracking may provide clues to nervous system function at many levels. Spatial calibration of the eye tracking device requires the subject to have relatively intact ocular motility that implies function of cranial nerves (CNs) III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), and VI (abducent) and their associated nuclei, along with the multiple regions of the brain imparting cognition and volition. The authors have developed a technique for eye tracking that uses temporal rather than spatial calibration, enabling detection of impaired ability to move the pupil relative to normal (neurologically healthy) control volunteers. This work was performed to demonstrate that this technique may detect CN palsies related to brain compression and to provide insight into how the technique may be of value for evaluating neuropathological conditions associated with CN palsy, such as hydrocephalus or acute mass effect.

METHODS

The authors recorded subjects' eye movements by using an Eyelink 1000 eye tracker sampling at 500 Hz over 200 seconds while the subject viewed a music video playing inside an aperture on a computer monitor. The aperture moved in a rectangular pattern over a fixed time period. This technique was used to assess ocular motility in 157 neurologically healthy control subjects and 12 patients with either clinical CN III or VI palsy confirmed by neuro-ophthalmological examination, or surgically treatable pathological conditions potentially impacting these nerves. The authors compared the ratio of vertical to horizontal eye movement (height/width defined as aspect ratio) in normal and test subjects.

RESULTS

In 157 normal controls, the aspect ratio (height/width) for the left eye had a mean value ± SD of 1.0117 ± 0.0706. For the right eye, the aspect ratio had a mean of 1.0077 ± 0.0679 in these 157 subjects. There was no difference between sexes or ages. A patient with known CN VI palsy had a significantly increased aspect ratio (1.39), whereas 2 patients with known CN III palsy had significantly decreased ratios of 0.19 and 0.06, respectively. Three patients with surgically treatable pathological conditions impacting CN VI, such as infratentorial mass effect or hydrocephalus, had significantly increased ratios (1.84, 1.44, and 1.34, respectively) relative to normal controls, and 6 patients with supratentorial mass effect had significantly decreased ratios (0.27, 0.53, 0.62, 0.45, 0.49, and 0.41, respectively). These alterations in eye tracking all reverted to normal ranges after surgical treatment of underlying pathological conditions in these 9 neurosurgical cases.

CONCLUSIONS

This proof of concept series of cases suggests that the use of eye tracking to detect CN palsy while the patient watches television or its equivalent represents a new capacity for this technology. It may provide a new tool for the assessment of multiple CNS functions that can potentially be useful in the assessment of awake patients with elevated intracranial pressure from hydrocephalus or trauma.

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Xiaofeng Deng, Faliang Gao, Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao, Yuanli Zhao, Yuesong Pan, Xun Ye, Xingju Liu, Qian Zhang, Jia Wang, Ziwen Yang, Meng Zhao and Jizong Zhao

OBJECTIVE

Bypass surgery is the most common treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is controversy over which surgical modality is best. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with MMD after undergoing different surgical modalities.

METHODS

A series of 696 consecutive MMD patients treated between June 2009 and May 2015 were screened in this prospective cohort study. Patients who did not undergo revascularization surgeries and those who underwent different surgical modalities in bilateral hemispheres were excluded. Finally, 529 patients who were observed for at least 12 months were included: 438 patients underwent unilateral surgery, and 91 patients underwent bilateral surgery. Of these, 241 patients underwent direct bypass (DB); 81, a combined bypass (CB); and 207, an indirect bypass (IB). Three clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between surgical groups: recurrent stroke events, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores, and change in the main symptoms.

RESULTS

The mean follow-up period was 40 months. During the follow-up period, recurrent stroke was observed in 43 patients, including 15 patients with hemorrhage, 26 patients with ischemia (transient ischemic attack in 19 patients and infarction in 7 patients), and 2 patients with both hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who underwent a CB or DB had a longer ischemia-free time than those who underwent IB (p = 0.013); however, there was no significant difference in the hemorrhage-free time between the different surgical modalities (p = 0.534). A good neurological status (mRS score ≤ 2) was achieved in 495 patients (93.6%) and was significantly achieved by more children (98.2%) than adults (92.3%; p = 0.022). Surgical modalities were not significantly associated with outcome neurological status (p = 0.860). Moreover, improvement in symptoms was observed in 449 patients (84.9%) and was also significantly more common in children (93.0%) than in adults (82.7%; p = 0.006). No significant difference was observed between the different surgical modalities (p = 0.548).

CONCLUSIONS

CB and DB are more effective at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes than IB. However, there is no evidence that these 3 surgical modalities demonstrate significant differences in preventing recurrent hemorrhage.