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Menashe Zaaroor, Bernardo Borovich, Lucyna Bassan, Yaffa Doron and Jan Gruszkiewicz

✓ A case of cutaneous extravertebral meningioma is presented. It was diagnosed in infancy as a lumbar meningocele. Operation was initially refused but was subsequently demanded for cosmetic reasons. The findings were a very thick corrugated skin and a cutaneous meningioma connected by a fibrous tract to the dura mater. The presence of a fibrous stalk linking the tumor to the dura mater might have been the pathogenetic connection between the meningocele and cutaneous meningioma.

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Menashe Zaaroor, Alon Sinai, Dorith Goldsher, Ayelet Eran, Maria Nassar and Ilana Schlesinger

OBJECTIVE

Thalamotomy of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) is effective in alleviating medication-resistant tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an innovative technology that enables noninvasive thalamotomy via thermal ablation.

METHODS

Patients with severe medication-resistant tremor underwent unilateral VIM thalamotomy using MRgFUS. Effects on tremor were evaluated using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) in patients with ET and by the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in patients with PD and ET-PD (defined as patients with ET who developed PD many years later). Quality of life in ET was measured by the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor (QUEST) questionnaire and in PD by the PD Questionnaire (PDQ-39).

RESULTS

Thirty patients underwent MRgFUS, including 18 with ET, 9 with PD, and 3 with ET-PD. The mean age of the study population was 68.9 ± 8.3 years (range 46–87 years) with a mean disease duration of 12.1 ± 8.9 years (range 2–30 years). MRgFUS created a lesion at the planned target in all patients, resulting in cessation of tremor in the treated hand immediately following treatment. At 1 month posttreatment, the mean CRST score of the patients with ET decreased from 40.7 ± 11.6 to 9.3 ± 7.1 (p < 0.001) and was 8.2 ± 5.0 six months after treatment (p < 0.001, compared with baseline). Average QUEST scores decreased from 44.8 ± 12.9 to 13.1 ± 13.2 (p < 0.001) and was 12.3 ± 7.2 six months after treatment (p < 0.001). In patients with PD, the mean score of the motor part of the UPDRS decreased from 24.9 ± 8.0 to 16.4 ± 11.1 (p = 0.042) at 1 month and was 13.4 ± 9.2 six months after treatment (p = 0.009, compared with baseline). The mean PDQ-39 score decreased from 38.6 ± 16.8 to 26.1 ± 7.2 (p = 0.036) and was 20.6 ± 8.8 six months after treatment (p = 0.008). During follow-up of 6–24 months (mean 11.5 ± 7.2 months, median 12.0 months), tremor reappeared in 6 of the patients (2 with ET, 2 with PD, and 2 with ET-PD), to a lesser degree than before the procedure in 5. Adverse events that transiently occurred during sonication included headache (n = 11), short-lasting vertigo (n = 14) and dizziness (n = 4), nausea (n = 3), burning scalp sensation (n = 3), vomiting (n = 2) and lip paresthesia (n = 2). Adverse events that lasted after the procedure included gait ataxia (n = 5), unsteady feeling (n = 4), taste disturbances (n = 4), asthenia (n = 4), and hand ataxia (n = 3). No adverse event lasted beyond 3 months. Patients underwent on average 21.0 ± 6.9 sonications (range 14–45 sonications) with an average maximal sonication time of 16.0 ± 3.0 seconds (range 13–24 seconds). The mean maximal energy reached was 12,500 ± 4274 J (range 5850–23,040 J) with a mean maximal temperature of 56.5° ± 2.2°C (range 55°–60°C).

CONCLUSIONS

MRgFUS VIM thalamotomy to relieve medication-resistant tremor was safe and effective in patients with ET, PD, and ET-PD. Current results emphasize the superior adverse events profile of MRgFUS over other surgical approaches for treating tremor with similar efficacy. Large randomized studies are needed to assess prolonged efficacy and safety.

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Andrei V. Chistyakov, Hava Hafner, Alon Sinai, Boris Kaplan and Menashe Zaaroor

Object

Previous studies have shown a close association between frontal lobe dysfunction and gait disturbance in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). A possible mechanism linking these impairments could be a modulation of corticospinal excitability. The aim of this study was 2-fold: 1) to determine whether iNPH affects corticospinal excitability; and 2) to evaluate changes in corticospinal excitability following ventricular shunt placement in relation to clinical outcome.

Methods

Twenty-three patients with iNPH were examined using single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation of the leg motor area before and 1 month after ventricular shunt surgery. The parameters of corticospinal excitability assessed were the resting motor threshold (rMT), motor evoked potential/M-wave area ratio, central motor conduction time, intracortical facilitation, and short intracortical inhibition (SICI). The results were compared with those obtained in 8 age-matched, healthy volunteers, 19 younger healthy volunteers, and 9 age-matched patients with peripheral neuropathy.

Results

Significant reduction of the SICI associated with a decrease of the rMT was observed in patients with iNPH at baseline evaluation. Ventricular shunt placement resulted in significant enhancement of the SICI and increase of the rMT in patients who markedly improved, but not in those who failed to improve.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that iNPH affects corticospinal excitability, causing disinhibition of the motor cortex. Recovery of corticospinal excitability following ventricular shunt placement is correlated with clinical improvement. These findings support the view that reduced control of motor output, rather than impairment of central motor conduction, is responsible for gait disturbances in patients with iNPH.

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Bernardo Borovich, Yaffa Doron, Jacob Braun, Joseph N. Guilburd, Menashe Zaaroor, Dorit Goldsher, Anshel Lemberger, Jan Gruszkiewicz and Moshe Feinsod

check; Globular single meningiomas are generally regarded as benign tumors that can be completely removed. Nevertheless, after a total macroscopic resection including the insertion zone (Grade 1 operation according to Simpson's classification), the incidence of recurrence ranged from 9% to 14% at the 5-year follow-up review. The authors have shown that single meningiomas represent only the visible predominant growth in the midst of a wide neoplastic field in the dura mater. Regional multiplicity in meningiomas would thus seem to be the rule. With this in mind, the authors propose to divide recurrences after Grade 1 operations into 1) true local and 2) false regional. A local recurrence is defined as a regrowth within the limits of the previous dural flap. Regional recurrence is when new growth develops outside the previous craniotomy site; this should not be considered as a recurrence but as a new primary site. These regional recurrences might explain some unexpected late tumor growth occurring after a Grade 1 operation. Five illustrative cases in which regional recurrence was detected by computerized tomography are presented. The authors also propose to add a supplementary grade to Simpson's surgical grading: Grade 0. This operation would entail a wide resection of the dura around the attachment zone of the meningioma. The authors hope that with a Grade 0 operation the incidence of recurrence might be reduced.

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Giuseppe R. Giammalva, Cesare Gagliardo, Rosario Maugeri, Massimo Midiri and Domenico G. Iacopino

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Alon Sinai, Maria Nassar, Ayelet Eran, Marius Constantinescu, Menashe Zaaroor, Elliot Sprecher and Ilana Schlesinger

OBJECTIVE

The authors report their experience in treating patients suffering from medication-resistant essential tremor (ET) with MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy over a 5-year period.

METHODS

Forty-four ET patients treated with unilateral MRgFUS ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) thalamotomy were assessed using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) score and the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) over a 5-year span.

RESULTS

Tremor was significantly improved immediately following MRgFUS in all patients and ceased completely in 24 patients. CRST scores in the treated hand at baseline (median 19; range 7–32, 44 patients) improved by a median of 16 at 1 month (44 patients; p < 0.0001), 17 at 6 months (31 patients; p < 0.0001), 15 at 1 year (24 patients; p < 0.0001), 18 at 2 years (15 patients; p < 0.0001), 19 at 3 years, (10 patients; p < 0.0001), 21 at 4 years (6 patients; p < 0.01), and 23 at 5 years (2 patients, significance not tested). Return of tremor that impacted activities of daily living was reported in 5 patients (11%). QUEST scores showed significant improvement, with median change of 35 points (p < 0.0001; 44 patients) at 1 month, 33 (p < 0.0001; 31 patients) at 6 months, 27 (p < 0.0001; 24 patients) at 1 year, 26 (p < 0.001; 15 patients) at 2 years, 25 (p < 0.001; 10 patients) at 3 years, 33 (p < 0.001; 6 patients) at 4 years, and 28 (significance not tested, 2 patients) at 5 years. Adverse events after the procedure were reversible in all but 5 patients (11%).

CONCLUSIONS

MRgFUS thalamotomy for ET is an effective and safe procedure that provides long-term tremor relief and improvement in quality of life even in patients with medication-resistant disabling tremor. Additional studies with a larger group of patients is needed to substantiate these favorable results.

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Bernardo Borovich, Jacob Braun, Joseph N. Guilburd, Menashe Zaaroor, Michel Michich, Lion Levy, Anshel Lemberger, Ian Grushkiewicz, Moshe Feinsod and Izu Schächter

✓ During a 4½-year period, seven patients with delayed onset of an extradural hematoma were seen among 80 consecutively treated cases of extradural hematoma for a frequency of 8.75%. The hematomas were insignificant or not present on initial computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Repeat CT scans within 24 hours of admission showed sizeable hemorrhages. Six hematomas were evacuated, and one was reabsorbed spontaneously. In only one patient did neurological deterioration herald the onset of the extradural hematoma, four patients remained unchanged, and two improved before diagnosis. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored in five patients, four of whom showed intermittent rise in pressure despite preventive treatment. Intracranial hypotension and rapid recovery from peripheral vascular collapse seemed to be contributory factors in the delayed onset of an extradural hematoma. Awareness of this entity, a high degree of vigilance, ICP monitoring, and repeat CT scanning within 24 hours of injury are strongly recommended in these cases, especially after decompression by either surgical or medical means, recovery from shock, or whenever there is evidence of even minimal bleeding under a skull fracture on the initial CT scan.