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Jacob Cherian, Kristen A. Staggers, I-Wen Pan, Melissa Lopresti, Andrew Jea and Sandi Lam

OBJECTIVE

Due to improved nutrition and early detection, myelomeningocele repair is a relatively uncommon procedure. Although previous studies have reviewed surgical trends and predictors of outcomes, they have relied largely on single-hospital experiences or on databases centered on hospital admission data. Here, the authors report 30-day outcomes of pediatric patients undergoing postnatal myelomeningocele repair from a national prospective surgical outcomes database. They sought to investigate the association between preoperative and intraoperative factors on the occurrence of 30-day complications, readmissions, and unplanned return to operating room events.

METHODS

The 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric database (NSQIP-P) was queried for all patients undergoing postnatal myelomeningocele repair. Patients were subdivided on the basis of the size of the repair (< 5 cm vs > 5 cm). Preoperative variables, intraoperative characteristics, and postoperative 30-day events were tabulated from prospectively collected data. Three separate outcomes for complication, unplanned readmission, and return to the operating room were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Rates of associated CSF diversion operations and their timing were also analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 114 patients were included; 54 had myelomeningocele repair for a defect size smaller than 5 cm, and 60 had repair for a defect size larger than 5 cm. CSF shunts were placed concurrently in 8% of the cases. There were 42 NSQIP-defined complications in 31 patients (27%); these included wound complications and infections, in addition to others. Postoperative wound complications were the most common and occurred in 27 patients (24%). Forty patients (35%) had at least one subsequent surgery within 30 days. Twenty-four patients (21%) returned to the operating room for initial shunt placement. Unplanned readmission occurred in 11% of cases. Both complication and return to operating room outcomes were statistically associated with age at repair.

CONCLUSIONS

The NSQIP-P allows examination of 30-day perioperative outcomes from a national prospectively collected database. In this cohort, over one-quarter of patients undergoing postnatal myelomeningocele repair experienced a complication within 30 days. The complication rate was significantly higher in patients who had surgical repair within the first 24 hours of birth than in patients who had surgery after the 1st day of life. The authors also highlight limitations of investigating myelomeningocele repair using NSQIP-P and advocate the importance of disease-specific data collection.

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Melissa A. LoPresti, Visish M. Srinivasan, Robert Y. North, Vijay M. Ravindra, Jeremiah Johnson, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Sandi K. Lam and Peter Kan

Direct bypass has been used to salvage failed endovascular treatment; however, little is known of the reversed role of endovascular management for failed bypass.

The authors report the case of a 7-year-old patient who underwent a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for treatment of a giant MCA aneurysm and describe the role of endovascular rescue in this case. Post-bypass catheter angiogram showed occlusion of the proximal extracranial STA donor with patent anastomosis, possibly due to STA dissection. A self-expanding Neuroform Atlas stent was deployed across the dissection flap, and follow-up images showed revascularization of the STA with good MCA runoff.

This case demonstrates that direct extracranial-intracranial bypass failure can infrequently originate from the STA donor vessel and that superselective angiogram can be useful for identification and treatment in such cases. With more advanced endovascular techniques the tide has turned in the treatment of complex cerebrovascular cases, with this case being an early example of successful rescue stenting for endovascular management of a failed donor after STA-MCA bypass.

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Melissa A. LoPresti, Visish M. Srinivasan, Robert Y. North, Vijay M. Ravindra, Jeremiah Johnson, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Sandi K. Lam and Peter Kan

Direct bypass has been used to salvage failed endovascular treatment; however, little is known of the reversed role of endovascular management for failed bypass.

The authors report the case of a 7-year-old patient who underwent a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for treatment of a giant MCA aneurysm and describe the role of endovascular rescue in this case. Post-bypass catheter angiogram showed occlusion of the proximal extracranial STA donor with patent anastomosis, possibly due to STA dissection. A self-expanding Neuroform Atlas stent was deployed across the dissection flap, and follow-up images showed revascularization of the STA with good MCA runoff.

This case demonstrates that direct extracranial-intracranial bypass failure can infrequently originate from the STA donor vessel and that superselective angiogram can be useful for identification and treatment in such cases. With more advanced endovascular techniques the tide has turned in the treatment of complex cerebrovascular cases, with this case being an early example of successful rescue stenting for endovascular management of a failed donor after STA-MCA bypass.

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Melissa A. LoPresti, Vijay M. Ravindra, Monika Pyarali, Eric Goethe, Nisha Gadgil, Kathyrn Wagner, Peter Kan and Sandi Lam

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children. Exploring outcomes of treatment and factors that predict recurrence may help guide the management of pediatric AVMs. In this study, the authors review a single-center experience with pediatric AVMs, aiming to identify factors contributing to recurrence and areas for improvement in treatment.

METHODS

A single-center retrospective review of patients ages 0–18 years with AVMs in the period from 2005 to 2018 was conducted. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data were collected and examined to compare the clinical and functional outcomes of patients managed with and those managed without open microsurgical resection.

RESULTS

One hundred five patients were diagnosed and treated during the study period. Fifty (47.6%) had been treated surgically and 35 (33.3%) nonsurgically, and 20 (19%) had been treated primarily at an outside institution and thus were excluded from further analysis. Of the 50 treated surgically, 92% had complete obliteration on postoperative imaging, with the remaining patients having residual AVM and undergoing re-resection or SRS, ultimately resulting in a 96% radiographic cure rate. The surgically treated patients were followed up for an average of 3.34 years. Eighty-two percent had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2. There was a recurrence rate of 12%, with the time to recurrence averaging 327.86 days (range 85–596 days). Of the 35 patients managed without open surgery, 77% underwent serial imaging surveillance, 20% underwent endovascular embolization, and 3% underwent stereotactic radiosurgery. Radiographic cure was seen in 6% of those treated nonsurgically, and all had undergone endovascular treatment alone. The nonsurgically treated patients were followed up for an average of 2.14 years. Eighty percent had an mRS score of 0–2.

CONCLUSIONS

The data revealed that patients with lower-grade AVMs treated surgically and those with higher-grade AVMs managed without surgery have good functional and clinical outcomes. A high rate of recurrence was noted, and the possible contributing factors were explored. The authors encourage further study into mechanisms to reduce AVM recurrence in pediatric patients and look forward to advances in the medical management of lesions that are considered unresectable.