Jasmine A. Thum DiCesare, David J. Segar, Brian V. Nahed, and Maya Babu
Linda W. Xu, Amy Li, Christian Swinney, Maya Babu, Anand Veeravagu, Stacey Quintero Wolfe, Brian V. Nahed, and John K. Ratliff
Recently, 2 surgeon rating websites (Consumers' Checkbook and ProPublica) were published to allow the public to compare surgeons through identifying surgeon volume and complication rates. Among neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons, only cervical and lumbar spine, hip, and knee procedures were included in this assessment.
The authors examined the methodology of each website to assess potential sources of inaccuracy. Each online tool was queried for reports on neurosurgeons specializing in spine surgery and orthopedic surgeons specializing in spine, hip, or knee surgery. Surgeons were chosen from top-ranked hospitals in the US, as recorded by a national consumer publication ranking system, within the fields of neurosurgery and orthopedic surgery. The results were compared for accuracy and surgeon representation, and the results of the 2 websites were also compared.
The methodology of each site was found to have opportunities for bias and limited risk adjustment. The end points assessed by each site were actually not complications, but proxies of complication occurrence. A search of 510 surgeons (401 orthopedic surgeons [79%] and 109 neurosurgeons [21%]) showed that only 28% and 56% of surgeons had data represented on Consumers' Checkbook and ProPublica, respectively. There was a significantly higher chance of finding surgeon data on ProPublica (p < 0.001). Of the surgeons from top-ranked programs with data available, 17% were quoted to have high complication rates, 13% with lower volume than other surgeons, and 79% had a 3-star out of 5-star rating. There was no significant correlation found between the number of stars a surgeon received on Consumers' Checkbook and his or her adjusted complication rate on ProPublica.
Both the Consumers' Checkbook and ProPublica websites have significant methodological issues. Neither site assessed complication occurrence, but rather readmissions or prolonged length of stay. Risk adjustment was limited or nonexistent. A substantial number of neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons from top-ranked hospitals have no ratings on either site, or have data that suggests they are low-volume surgeons or have higher complication rates. Consumers' Checkbook and ProPublica produced different results with little correlation between the 2 websites in how surgeons were graded. Given the significant methodological issues, incomplete data, and lack of appropriate risk stratification of patients, the featured websites may provide erroneous information to the public.
Sergio A. Calero-Martinez, Christian Matula, Aurelia Peraud, Francesco Biroli, José Fernández-Alén, Michael Bierschneider, Michael Cunningham, Gregory W. J. Hawryluk, Maya Babu, M. Ross Bullock, and Andrés M. Rubiano
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a significant disease burden worldwide. It is imperative to improve neurosurgeons’ training during and after their medical residency with appropriate neurotrauma competencies. Unfortunately, the development of these competencies during neurosurgeons’ careers and in daily practice is very heterogeneous. This article aimed to describe the development and evaluation of a competency-based international course curriculum designed to address a broad spectrum of needs for taking care of patients with neurotrauma with basic and advanced interventions in different scenarios around the world.
A committee of 5 academic neurosurgeons was involved in the task of building this course curriculum. The process started with the identification of the problems to be addressed and the subsequent performance needed. After this, competencies were defined. In the final phase, educational activities were designed to achieve the intended learning outcomes. In the end, the entire process resulted in competency and outcomes-based education strategy, including a definition of all learning activities and learning outcomes (curriculum), that can be integrated with a faculty development process, including training. Further development was completed by 4 additional academic neurosurgeons supported by a curriculum developer specialist and a project manager. After the development of the course curriculum, template programs were developed with core and optional content defined for implementation and evaluation.
The content of the course curriculum is divided into essentials and advanced concepts and interventions in neurotrauma care. A mixed sample of 1583 neurosurgeons and neurosurgery residents attending 36 continuing medical education activities in 30 different cities around the world evaluated the course. The average satisfaction was 97%. The average usefulness score was 4.2, according to the Likert scale.
An international competency-based course curriculum is an option for creating a well-accepted neurotrauma educational process designed to address a broad spectrum of needs that a neurotrauma practitioner faces during the basic and advanced care of patients in different regions of the world. This process may also be applied to other areas of the neurosurgical knowledge spectrum. Moreover, this process allows worldwide standardization of knowledge requirements and competencies, such that training may be better benchmarked between countries regardless of their income level.
Timothy R. Smith, M. Maher Hulou, Sandra C. Yan, David J. Cote, Brian V. Nahed, Maya A. Babu, Sunit Das, William B. Gormley, James T. Rutka, Edward R. Laws Jr., and Robert F. Heary
Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada.
An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons’ perception of liability risk and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages.
A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid less than $5000 for insurance annually. The majority (87%) of Canadian neurosurgeons felt confident with their insurance coverage, and 60% reported that they rarely felt the need to practice defensive medicine. The majority of the respondents reported that the perceived medicolegal risk environment has no bearing on their preferred practice location. Only 1 in 5 respondent Canadian neurosurgeons (21.8%) reported viewing patients as a potential lawsuit. Only 4.9% of respondents would have selected a different career based on current medicolegal risk factors, and only 4.1% view the cost of annual malpractice insurance as a major burden.
Canadian neurosurgeons perceive their medicolegal risk environment as more favorable and their patients as less likely to sue than their counterparts in the US do. Overall, Canadian neurosurgeons engage in fewer defensive medical behaviors than previously reported in the US.