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Constantin Tuleasca, Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Henri-Arthur Leroy, Maximilien Vermandel, Mohamed Faouzi, and Nicolas Reyns

OBJECTIVE

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) present no pathologic tissue, and radiation dose is confined in a clear targeted volume. The authors retrospectively evaluated the role of the biologically effective dose (BED) after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for brain AVMs.

METHODS

A total of 149 consecutive cases of unruptured AVMs treated by upfront GKRS in Lille University Hospital, France, were included. The mean length of follow-up was 52.9 months (median 48, range 12–154 months). The primary outcome was obliteration, and the secondary outcome was complication appearance. The marginal dose was 24 Gy in a vast majority of cases (n = 115, 77.2%; range 18–25 Gy). The mean BED was 220.1 Gy2.47 (median 229.9, range 106.7–246.8 Gy2.47). The mean beam-on time was 32.3 minutes (median 30.8, range 9–138.7 minutes). In the present series, the mean radiation dose rate was 2.259 Gy/min (median 2.176, range 1.313–3.665 Gy/min). The Virginia score was 0 in 29 (19.5%), 1 in 61 (40.9%), 2 in 41 (27.5%), 3 in 18 (12.1%), and 4 in 0 (0%) patients, respectively. The mean Pollock-Flickinger score was 1.11 (median 1.52, range 0.4–2.9). Univariate (for obliteration and complication appearance) and multivariate (for obliteration only) analyses were performed.

RESULTS

A total of 104 AVMs (69.8%) were obliterated at the last follow-up. The strongest predictor for obliteration was BED (p = 0.03). A radiosurgical obliteration score is proposed, derived from a fitted multivariable model: (0.018 × BED) + (1.58 × V12) + (−0.013689 × beam-on time) + (0.021 × age) − 4.38. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.7438; after internal validation using bootstrap methods, it was 0.7088. No statistically significant relationship between radiation dose rate and obliteration was found (p = 0.29). Twenty-eight (18.8%) patients developed complications after GKRS; 20 (13.4%) of these patients had transient adverse radiological effects (perilesional edema developed). Predictors for complication appearance were higher prescription isodose volume (p = 0.005) and 12-Gy isodose line volume (V12; p = 0.001), higher Pollock-Flickinger (p = 0.02) and Virginia scores (p = 0.003), and lower beam-on time (p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

The BED was the strongest predictor of obliteration of unruptured AVMs after upfront GKRS. A radiosurgical score comprising the BED is proposed. The V12 appears as a predictor for both efficacy and toxicity. Beam-on time was illustrated as statistically significant for both obliteration and complication appearance. The radiation dose rate did not influence obliteration in the current analysis. The exact BED threshold remains to be established by further studies.

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Rabih Aboukais, Fahed Zairi, Jean-Paul Lejeune, Emile Le Rhun, Maximilien Vermandel, Serge Blond, Patrick Devos, and Nicolas Reyns

OBJECT

World Health Organization Grade 2 meningiomas are aggressive tumors associated with a high recurrence rate leading to repeated surgical procedures, which can seriously worsen a patient's neurological status. Although radiosurgery is an increasingly popular technique, its role in the management of Grade 2 meningiomas has yet to be defined. In this study the authors aimed to evaluate radiosurgery in achieving control of proven tumor progression occurring after resection of Grade 2 meningioma.

METHODS

This retrospective study included consecutive patients who, between 2000 and 2012, had undergone radiosurgery for radiologically proven progression of a previously surgically treated Grade 2 meningioma.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven patients were eligible for analysis. There were 9 men and 18 women with a mean age of 59 years. The mean radiation dose was 15.2 Gy (range 12–21 Gy), and the mean target volume was 5.4 cm3 (range 0.194–14.2 cm3). Thirty-four radiosurgical procedures were performed in the 27 patients. The mean progression-free survival after radiosurgery was 32.4 months among those with progression in a target irradiated volume and 26.4 months among those with progression in any intracranial meninges. With a mean follow-up of 56.4 months (range 12–108 months), the 12-, 24-, and 36-month actuarial local control rates for all patients were 75%, 52%, and 40%, respectively, and the regional control rates were 75%, 48%, and 33%. A single case of transient hemiparesis completely resolved without sequelae.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiosurgery appears to be a safe and effective treatment for the local control of delayed progression after resection of a Grade 2 meningioma. Higher radiation doses similar to those applied for malignant tumors should be recommended when possible.

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Phillip A. Bonney and Michael E. Sughrue

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Benjamin Pommier, Gustavo Touzet, Christian Lucas, Maximilien Vermandel, Serge Blond, and Nicolas Reyns

OBJECTIVE

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a rare and disabling condition. Just as for trigeminal neuralgia, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is increasingly proposed as a therapeutic option for GPN. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term safety and efficacy of GKRS for this indication.

METHODS

From 2007 to 2015, 9 patients (4 male and 5 female) underwent a total of 10 GKRS procedures. All of the patients presented with GPN that was refractory to all medical treatment, and all had a long history of pain. One patient had previously undergone surgical microvascular decompression. In 5 cases, a neurovascular conflict had been identified on MRI. For the GKRS procedure, the glossopharyngeal nerve was localized on MRI and CT under stereotactic conditions. The target was located at the glossopharyngeal meatus of the jugular foramen. The dose administered to the nerve was 80 Gy in 3 procedures and 90 Gy in the others. Follow-up was planned for 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure and annually thereafter.

RESULTS

Eight patients experienced an improvement in their pain. The median length of time from GKRS to symptom improvement in this group was 7 weeks (range 2–12 months). At the first follow-up, 6 patients were pain-free (pain intensity scores of I–III, based on an adaptation of the Barrow Neurological Institute scoring system for trigeminal neuralgia), including 4 patients who were also medication-free (I). One patient had partial improvement (IV) and 2 patients had no change. The mean duration of follow-up was 46 months (range 10–90 months). At the last follow-up 6 patients remained pain-free (pain scores of I–III), including 4 patients who were pain free with no medication (I). No side effect was observed.

CONCLUSIONS

Because of its safety and efficacy, GKRS appears to be a useful tool for treatment of GPN, including first-line treatment.

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Iulia Peciu-Florianu, Maximilien Vermandel, Nicolas Reyns, and Constantin Tuleasca