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Matthew R. Reynolds, Spiros L. Blackburn and Matthew D. Smyth

The authors present the case of a 3-year-old child with Kleeblattschädel, or cloverleaf skull deformity, and a Chiari malformation Type I who developed an ossified pseudomeningocele after posterior fossa decompression. To their knowledge, this is the first report of a postoperative ossified pseudomeningocele in a patient with Kleeblattschädel and the only case of an ossified pseudomeningocele located outside the lumbosacral region. A genetic basis for the ossification process seems likely given the child's history of premature cranial suture closure. The authors draw attention to this rare complication and review the available body of literature on this topic.

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Rob D. Dickerman, Ashley Reynolds and R.N. Matthew Bennett

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Matthew R. Reynolds, Spiros L. Blackburn and Gregory J. Zipfel

Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNSAH) is a benign variant of SAH defined by clinical symptoms of SAH, a characteristic pattern of extravasated blood on noncontrast CT, and negative findings on cerebral angiography. This syndrome carries a favorable prognosis with reportedly no risk of recurrent hemorrhage. The authors present the case of a 62-year-old man with no significant medical history who experienced recurrent, spontaneous episodes of PNSAH within the course of 5 months. No precipitating causes were identified, but the patient had been involved in exertional activities preceding both events. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first conclusive report of recurrent, idiopathic PNSAH. The findings suggest that while the risk of recurrent hemorrhage in the setting of PNSAH is far less than that for aneurysmal SAH, rebleeding can still occur. The authors speculate on the etiology of this rare phenomenon.

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Rory K. J. Murphy, Matthew R. Reynolds, David B. Mansur and Matthew D. Smyth

Cavernous sinus (CS) hemangiomas are rare vascular abnormalities that constitute 0.4%–2% of all lesions within the CS. Cavernous sinus hemangiomas are high-flow vascular tumors that tend to hemorrhage profusely during resection, leading to incomplete resection and high morbidity and mortality. While Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) has proven to be an effective treatment of CS hemangiomas in the adult population, few reports of GKS for treatment of CS hemangiomas exist in the pediatric literature. Here, the authors present the first case of a 15-year-old girl with a biopsy-proven CS hemangioma who achieved complete resolution of her symptoms and a complete imaging-defined response following GKS. If suspicion for a CS hemangioma is high in a pediatric patient, GKS may be considered as an effective treatment modality, thus avoiding the morbidities of open resection.

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Matthew R. Reynolds, Jon T. Willie, Gregory J. Zipfel and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant cause of death in young and middle-aged individuals and causes tremendous morbidity in affected patients. Despite the identification of various risk factors, the series of events leading to the formation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms is poorly understood. Cerebral aneurysm rupture has been associated with sexual intercourse and other forms of physical exercise. In fact, multiple case series reported that coitus was the immediate preceding activity in 3.8–14.5% of patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH. This may be related to the large elevations in mean arterial blood pressure that occur in both males and females during sexual intercourse (130–175 and 125–160 mm Hg, respectively). While coitus and physical exercise share important physiological similarities, each may differentially affect the probability that a preformed aneurysm will rupture. In this literature review and synthesis, the authors analyze the physiological human response to sexual intercourse in an effort to delineate those factors that may precipitate aneurysmal rupture. The authors' analysis is based on the original data collected by Masters and Johnson. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review to address the link between sexual intercourse and intracranial aneurysmal rupture. While actual measurements of the physiological variables relevant to SAH were not performed in this article, the authors make reasonable assumptions based on the available data to help elucidate the mechanism of sexually induced aneurysmal rupture.

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Rob D. Dickerman, Ashley Reynolds, Jennifer Tackett, Brent Morgan and Matthew Bennett

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Matthew R. Reynolds, Colin P. Derdeyn, Robert L. Grubb Jr., William J. Powers and Gregory J. Zipfel

Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass has been used in the treatment of various neurosurgical pathologies including skull base tumors requiring sacrifice of a large intracranial artery; complex intracranial aneurysms requiring trapping; and distal revascularization, moyamoya disease, and symptomatic cerebrovascular stenoocclusive disease. The latter indication has been the subject of intense investigations in several large randomized controlled trials, most recently the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS). In the present literature review and synthesis, the authors examine the current evidence available for EC-IC arterial bypass for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease including both extracranial carotid artery occlusive disease and intracranial atherosclerotic disease. They focus particular attention on EC-IC arterial bypass for the treatment of symptomatic hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and how lessons learned from the COSS might guide future investigations into the treatment of this disease.

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Daniel M. Heiferman, Daphne Li, Joseph C. Serrone, Matthew R. Reynolds, Anand V. Germanwala, Clarence B. Watridge and Adam S. Arthur

Dr. Francis Murphey of the Semmes-Murphey Clinic in Memphis recognized that a focal sacculation on the dome of an aneurysm may be angiographic evidence of a culpable aneurysm in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage with multiple intracranial aneurysms present. This has been referred to as a Murphey’s “teat,” “tit,” or “excrescence.” With variability in terminology, misspellings in the literature, and the fact that Dr. Murphey did not formally publish this important work, the authors sought to clarify the meaning and investigate the origins of this enigmatic cerebrovascular eponym.

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Matthew R. Reynolds, Jarod L. Roland, Ashwin A. Kamath, DeWitte T. Cross III and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.

Perforating arteries rarely project from the fundus of an aneurysm. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was found to have a right posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysm via catheter angiography. Superselective microcatheter angiography revealed that perforating arteries arose from the aneurysm fundus that supplied the anterolateral thalamus. Microsurgical exploration confirmed several small perforating arteries arising from the aneurysm dome as well as an atretic distal PCOM artery. Given the complex anatomy, the lesion was unsuitable for clipping. We propose that this aneurysm represents a developmental variant whereby the proximal PCOM artery becomes atretic and terminates in PCOM perforators.

The video can be found here:

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Matthew R. Reynolds, Robert L. Grubb Jr., William R. Clarke, William J. Powers, Gregory J. Zipfel, Harold P. Adams Jr., Colin P. Derdeyn and for the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study Investigators


The Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) was a large, prospective clinical trial that examined whether superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass, in addition to best medical therapy, reduced the risk of ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with carotid artery occlusion and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Despite improved cerebral hemodynamics and excellent bypass graft patency rates, COSS failed to show a benefit for the surgical group with respect to ipsilateral stroke recurrence at 2 years after treatment. This was due to a lower than expected rate of recurrent ipsilateral stroke in the medically treated group and a high rate of perioperative ipsilateral strokes in the surgical group. Critics of the trial have cited surgeon inexperience and technical difficulties related to the performance of the bypass graft as a leading cause of failure of the trial.


The authors retrospectively identified all patients from the COSS with an ipsilateral, perioperative (< 30 days) ischemic stroke after STA-MCA cortical branch anastomosis. Study records, operative notes, stroke adjudication forms, and imaging studies were reviewed. Ischemic strokes were characterized as bypass graft related or non–bypass graft related based on clinical and radiographic findings.


Fourteen of 93 surgically treated patients experienced an ipsilateral, perioperative ischemic stroke. Postoperatively, the mean oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) ratio between the symptomatic and asymptomatic cerebral hemisphere significantly improved in these patients (1.30 ± 0.18 preoperative vs 1.12 ± 0.11 postoperative; p = 0.02), but did not normalize. In this cohort, total MCA occlusion time during the anastomosis (54.3 ± 23.5 minutes) was no different from the MCA occlusion time in those surgical patients who did not have a perioperative stroke (45.4 ± 24.2 minutes, p = 0.2). Bypass graft patency rates in patients with a perioperative stroke were 92% at 30 days (11 of 12 patients with patency data) and 83% at last follow-up visit (10 of 12 patients with patency data). These patency rates were not significantly different from those achieved at 30 days (100%; 76 of 76 patients with patency data; p = 0.14) and at last follow-up (99%; 71 of 72 patients with patency data; p = 0.052) in patients without a perioperative stroke. Eighty-six percent (12 of 14 patients) of strokes were likely attributable to factors unrelated to the STA-MCA anastomosis. Only 21% of strokes (3 of 14 patients) were in the territory of the recipient vessel and likely related to technical performance of the anastomosis itself. One patient was thought to have dual stroke mechanisms.


Only a small minority of ipsilateral, perioperative ischemic strokes in the COSS could be attributed to technical problems of the bypass anastomosis. The majority of ischemic strokes could not be ascribed to this cause and were most likely due to patient hemodynamic fragility and the inability of patients to tolerate surgery.