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Matthew E. Eagles, Michael K. Tso and R. Loch Macdonald

OBJECTIVE

Fluctuations in patient serum sodium levels are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), but their effect on patient outcome is not well described in the literature. The goal of this work was to better characterize the relationship between fluctuations in serum sodium levels, outcome, and the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aSAH.

METHODS

The authors performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) trial. Patients had their serum sodium values recorded daily for 14 days post-aSAH. Average and average absolute daily differences in sodium levels were calculated for each patient based on 3 reference points: admission sodium levels, a normal sodium level (defined as 140 mmol/L), and the previous day’s sodium level. These variables were also calculated for the classic “vasospasm window” (days 3–12) post-aSAH. A stepwise logistic regression model, locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between alterations in serum sodium levels and clinical outcome or the development of DCI after aSAH. Poor outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of > 2 at 3 months.

RESULTS

The average daily difference in sodium values from baseline (p < 0.001), average daily difference from a normal sodium level (p < 0.001), average absolute daily difference from a normal sodium level (p = 0.015), and average absolute daily difference from the previous day’s sodium level (p = 0.017) were significant predictors of poor outcome in a stepwise multivariate regression model. There was a trend toward significance for average absolute daily difference from admission sodium levels during the vasospasm window as an independent predictor of DCI (p = 0.052). There was no difference in the predictive capacity for DCI when sodium fluctuations from post-aSAH days 1–14 were compared with those from the classic vasospasm window (days 3–12).

CONCLUSIONS

Fluctuations in serum sodium levels may play a role in clinical outcome and the development of DCI after aSAH. The timing of these fluctuations appears to have no significant effect on the development of DCI.

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Nicholas Sader, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Matthew E. Eagles, Salim Ahmed, Jenna E. Koschnitzky and Jay Riva-Cambrin

OBJECTIVE

YouTube has become an important information source for pediatric neurosurgical patients and their families. The goal of this study was to determine whether the informative quality of videos of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV + CPC) is associated with metrics of popularity.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study used comprehensive search terms to identify videos pertaining to ETV and ETV + CPC presented on the first 3 pages of search results on YouTube. Two pediatric neurosurgeons, 1 neurosurgery resident, and 2 patient families independently reviewed the selected videos. Videos were assessed for overall informational quality by using a validated 5-point Global Quality Score (GQS) and compared to online metrics of popularity and engagement such as views, likes, likes/views ratio, comments/views ratio, and likes/dislikes ratio. Weighted kappa scores were used to measure agreement between video reviewers.

RESULTS

A total of 58 videos (47 on ETV, 7 on ETV + CPC, 4 on both) of 120 videos assessed met the inclusion criteria. Video styles included “technical” (62%), “lecture” (24%), “patient testimonial” (4%), and “other” (10%). In terms of GQS, substantial agreement was seen between surgeons (kappa 0.67 [95% CI 0.55, 0.80]) and excellent agreement was found between each surgeon and the neurosurgical resident (0.77 [95% CI 0.66, 0.88] and 0.89 [95% CI 0.82, 0.97]). Only fair to moderate agreement was seen between professionals and patient families, with weighted kappa scores ranging from 0.07 to 0.56. Academic lectures were more likely to be rated good or excellent (64% vs 0%, p < 0.001) versus surgical procedure and testimonial video types. There were significant associations between a better GQS and more likes (p = 0.01), views (p = 0.02), and the likes/dislikes ratio (p = 0.016). The likes/views ratio (p = 0.31) and comments/views ratio (p = 0.35) were not associated with GQS. The number of likes (p = 0.02), views (p = 0.03), and the likes/dislikes ratio (p = 0.015) were significantly associated with video style (highest for lecture-style videos).

CONCLUSIONS

Medical professionals tended to agree when assessing the overall quality of YouTube videos, but this agreement was not as strongly seen when compared to parental ratings. The online metrics of likes, views, and likes/dislikes ratio appear to predict quality. Neurosurgeons seeking to increase their online footprint via YouTube would be well advised to focus more on the academic lecture style because these were universally better rated.

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Mirriam Mikhail, Oliver G. S. Ayling, Matthew E. Eagles, George M. Ibrahim and R. Loch Macdonald

OBJECTIVE

Higher mortality has been reported with weekend or after-hours patient admission across a wide range of surgical and medical specialties, a phenomenon termed the “weekend effect.” The authors evaluated whether weekend admission contributed to death and long-term neurological outcome in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

METHODS

A post hoc analysis of the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) study was conducted. Univariable and stepwise multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between weekend admission and mortality and long-term neurological outcome.

RESULTS

Of 413 subjects included in the CONSCIOUS-1 study, 140 patients had been admitted during the weekend. A significant interaction was identified between weekend admission and neurological grade on presentation, suggesting that the outcomes of patients who had initially presented with a poor grade were disproportionately influenced by the weekend admission. On stepwise multivariable logistic regression in the subgroup of patients who had presented with a poor neurological grade (29 of 100 patients), admission on the weekend was found to be independently associated with death (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.62–26.88, p = 0.009). Weekend admission was not associated with long-term neurological outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Weekend admission was an independent risk factor for death within 12 weeks following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients presenting with a poor neurological grade. Further work is required to identify and mitigate any mediating factors.

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Matthew E. Eagles, Maria F. Powell, Oliver G. S. Ayling, Michael K. Tso and R. Loch Macdonald

OBJECTIVE

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with death in critically ill patients, but this complication has not been well characterized after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AKI after aSAH and to identify risk factors for renal dysfunction. Secondary objectives were to examine what effect AKI has on patient mortality and functional outcome at 12 weeks post-aSAH.

METHODS

The authors performed a post hoc analysis of the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) trial data set (clinical trial registration no.: NCT00111085, https://clinicaltrials.gov). The primary outcome of interest was the development of AKI, which was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Secondary outcomes of interest were death and a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 2 at 12 weeks post-aSAH. Propensity score matching was used to assess for a significant treatment effect related to clazosentan administration and AKI. Univariate analysis, locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) curves, and stepwise logistic regression models were used to evaluate for associations between baseline or disease-related characteristics and study outcomes.

RESULTS

One hundred fifty-six (38%) of the 413 patients enrolled in the CONSCIOUS-1 trial developed AKI during their ICU stay. A history of hypertension (p < 0.001) and the number of nephrotoxic medications administered (p = 0.029) were independent predictors of AKI on multivariate analysis. AKI was an independent predictor of death (p = 0.028) but not a poor functional outcome (p = 0.21) on multivariate testing. Unresolved renal dysfunction was the strongest independent predictor of death in this cohort (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

AKI is a common complication following aSAH. Patients with premorbid hypertension and those treated with nephrotoxic medications may be at greater risk for renal dysfunction. AKI appears to confer an increased probability of death after aSAH.

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Mirriam Mikhail, Oliver G. S. Ayling, Matthew E. Eagles, George M. Ibrahim and R. Loch Macdonald

OBJECTIVE

Higher mortality has been reported with weekend or after-hours patient admission across a wide range of surgical and medical specialties, a phenomenon termed the “weekend effect.” The authors evaluated whether weekend admission contributed to death and long-term neurological outcome in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

METHODS

A post hoc analysis of the Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1) study was conducted. Univariable and stepwise multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between weekend admission and mortality and long-term neurological outcome.

RESULTS

Of 413 subjects included in the CONSCIOUS-1 study, 140 patients had been admitted during the weekend. A significant interaction was identified between weekend admission and neurological grade on presentation, suggesting that the outcomes of patients who had initially presented with a poor grade were disproportionately influenced by the weekend admission. On stepwise multivariable logistic regression in the subgroup of patients who had presented with a poor neurological grade (29 of 100 patients), admission on the weekend was found to be independently associated with death (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.62–26.88, p = 0.009). Weekend admission was not associated with long-term neurological outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Weekend admission was an independent risk factor for death within 12 weeks following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients presenting with a poor neurological grade. Further work is required to identify and mitigate any mediating factors.