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Yuzo Terakawa, Yordanka N. Yordanova, Matthew C. Tate and Hugues Duffau

Object

Multicentric diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) are defined as widely separated lesions in different lobes or hemispheres where there is no anatomical continuity between lesions. This condition is rare and its clinicopathological characteristics have been scarcely described in the literature. Here, the authors report the first consecutive surgical series of multicentric DLGGs with functional and oncological outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective review of patients surgically treated for histopathologically confirmed multicentric DLGGs between 2000 and 2012 was performed. Information regarding clinical features, surgical procedures, histopathological results, and clinical outcomes was collected and analyzed.

Results

Five consecutive patients were included in this study. There were 3 men and 2 women, whose mean age was 27.4 years (range 23–35 years). The mean follow-up period after surgery was 46 months (range 11–138 months). Gross-total or subtotal resection was achieved in all cases, using a single surgery in 3 patients and a 2-stage surgery in 2 patients. There was no mortality or permanent morbidity associated with surgery. The Karnofsky Performance Scale score ranged between 90 and 100 in all cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 2 patients because of tumor regrowth with no malignant transformation.

Conclusions

Multicentric DLGGs can be removed safely without inducing severe permanent neurological deficits. Interestingly, a single-stage resection of multiple lesions within different lobes may be performed if tumors are located in the same hemisphere. Therefore, the authors suggest considering surgery as the first therapeutic option for multicentric DLGGs, as in solitary DLGGs.

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Phiroz E. Tarapore, Matthew C. Tate, Anne M. Findlay, Susanne M. Honma, Danielle Mizuiri, Mitchel S. Berger and Srikantan S. Nagarajan

Object

Direct cortical stimulation (DCS) is the gold-standard technique for motor mapping during craniotomy. However, preoperative noninvasive motor mapping is becoming increasingly accurate. Two such noninvasive modalities are navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging. While MEG imaging has already been extensively validated as an accurate modality of noninvasive motor mapping, TMS is less well studied. In this study, the authors compared the accuracy of TMS to both DCS and MEG imaging.

Methods

Patients with tumors in proximity to primary motor cortex underwent preoperative TMS and MEG imaging for motor mapping. The patients subsequently underwent motor mapping via intraoperative DCS. The loci of maximal response were recorded from each modality and compared. Motor strength was assessed at 3 months postoperatively.

Results

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and MEG imaging were performed on 24 patients. Intraoperative DCS yielded 8 positive motor sites in 5 patients. The median distance ± SEM between TMS and DCS motor sites was 2.13 ± 0.29 mm, and between TMS and MEG imaging motor sites was 4.71 ± 1.08 mm. In no patients did DCS motor mapping reveal a motor site that was unrecognized by TMS. Three of 24 patients developed new, early neurological deficit in the form of upper-extremity paresis. At the 3-month follow-up evaluation, 2 of these patients were significantly improved, experiencing difficulty only with fine motor tasks; the remaining patient had improvement to 4/5 strength. There were no deaths over the course of the study.

Conclusions

Maps of the motor system generated with TMS correlate well with those generated by both MEG imaging and DCS. Negative TMS mapping also correlates with negative DCS mapping. Navigated TMS is an accurate modality for noninvasively generating preoperative motor maps.

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Matthew C. Tate, Chae-Yong Kim, Edward F. Chang, Mei-Yin Polley and Mitchel S. Berger

Object

The morbidity associated with resection of tumors in the cingulate gyrus (CG) is not well established. The goal of the present study is to define the short- and long-term morbidity profile associated with resection of gliomas within this region.

Methods

Ninety consecutive patients with gliomas involving the CG were analyzed. Resections were classified by zones corresponding to functionally defined regions of the CG as follows: Zone I (perigenual, anterior), Zone II (midcingulate), Zone III (posterior), and Zone IV (retrosplenial). Basic demographic, imaging, operative details, and pre- and postoperative neurological examinations were recorded for each patient. Patients in whom neurological morbidity was documented during their initial postoperative examination who did not completely improve by the 6-month follow-up examination were considered to have a permanent deficit. For each patient with surgery-related morbidity, postoperative MR imaging and operative notes were reviewed, and the cortical regions incorporated in the surgical trajectory were recorded. The analysis was carried out for tumors confined to the CG (> 90% of tumor contained within the CG) as well as those involving the CG but extending into adjacent cortical structures.

Results

Analysis of the entire patient cohort demonstrated that 29% of patients experienced a new or worsened neurological deficit immediately after surgery. The most common deficits were supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome (20%), weakness (6%), and sensory changes (2%). All patients with an SMA syndrome in our series had intentional resection of SMA as part of the surgical approach. Patients with resections including Zone II or III had a higher rate of total morbidity and SMA syndrome than patients with Zone I resections (p < 0.05). Only 4% of patients had a persistent neurological deficit at 6 months postoperatively. A similar morbidity profile was observed in the subset analysis of patients with tumors confined to the CG, with no additional morbidity related to known cingulate-specific functions.

Conclusions

Resection of gliomas involving the CG can be performed with minimal, predictable long-term morbidity (< 5%). Surgical morbidity is primarily a function of surgical trajectory rather than the particular cingulate region resected.

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Zachary A. Abecassis, Amit B. Ayer, Jessica W. Templer, Ketan Yerneni, Nikhil K. Murthy and Matthew C. Tate

OBJECTIVE

Intraoperative stimulation has emerged as a crucial adjunct in neurosurgical oncology, aiding maximal tumor resection while preserving sensorimotor and language function. Despite increasing use in clinical practice of this stimulation, there are limited data on both intraoperative seizure (IS) frequency and the presence of afterdischarges (ADs) in patients undergoing such procedures. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for IS or ADs, and to determine the clinical consequences of these intraoperative events.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed for patients undergoing awake craniotomy (both first time and repeat) at a single institution from 2013 to 2018. Hypothesized risk factors for ADs/ISs in patients were evaluated for their effect on ADs and ISs, including tumor location, tumor grade (I–IV), genetic markers (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase [MGMT] promoter methylation, chromosome 1p/19q codeletion), tumor volume, preoperative seizure status (yes/no), and dosage of preoperative antiepileptic drugs for each patient. Clinical outcomes assessed in patients with IS or ADs were duration of surgery, length of stay, presence of perioperative deficits, and postoperative seizures. Chi-square analysis was performed for binary categorical variables, and a Student t-test was used to assess continuous variables.

RESULTS

A total of 229 consecutive patients were included in the analysis. Thirty-five patients (15%) experienced ISs. Thirteen (37%) of these 35 patients had experienced seizures that were appreciated clinically and noted on electrocorticography simultaneously, while 8 patients (23%) experienced ISs that were electrographic alone (no obvious clinical change). MGMT promoter methylation was associated with an increased prevalence of ISs (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2–7.8, p = 0.02). Forty patients (18%) experienced ADs. Twenty-three percent of patients (9/40) with ISs had ADs prior to their seizure, although ISs and ADs were not statistically associated (p = 0.16). The presence of ADs appeared to be correlated with a shorter length of stay (5.1 ± 2.6 vs 6.1 ± 3.7 days, p = 0.037). Of the clinical features assessed, none were found to be predictive of ADs. Neither IS nor AD, or the presence of either IS or AD (65/229 patients), was a predictor for increased length of stay, presence of perioperative deficits, or postoperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS

ISs and ADs, while commonly observed during intraoperative stimulation for brain mapping, do not negatively affect patient outcomes.

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Matthew C. Tate, Anurahda Banerjee, Scott R. Vandenberg, Tarik Tihan, John H. Chi, Christopher P. Ames and Andrew T. Parsa

This 18-year-old woman presented with headache and diplopia over several months and was found to have an enhancing pineal tumor with resultant obstructive hydrocephalus. Following standard preoperative diagnostic tests, including spinal axis imaging, the patient was taken to the operating room for an endoscopic third ventriculostomy to relieve hydrocephalus and then subsequently underwent a craniotomy for gross-total resection of the pineal mass. The patient was discharged after an uneventful hospital course and received standard adjuvant cranial-spinal radiation and chemotherapy as an outpatient. Follow-up imaging 1 year after surgery demonstrated a metabolically active, lytic lesion in the C-3 vertebral body and new lung lesions suggesting a metastatic pineoblastoma. The patient underwent a C-3 anterior corpectomy and reconstruction without complication as aggressive therapy for presumed metastatic disease. Final pathological results from the vertebral lesion were consistent with radiation-induced reactive changes, not metastatic pineoblastoma as originally suspected. The patient recovered well and remains symptom free. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of reactive changes mimicking metastasis in a single vertebral body following standard therapy for resected primary pineoblastoma.