✓ The authors report the use of neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy to treat successfully both hydrocephalus and syringomyelia associated with fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. A 27-year-old woman presented with dizziness, headache, and nausea. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated dilation of all ventricles, downward displacement of the third ventricular floor, obliteration of the retrocerebellar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space, funnellike enlargement of the entrance of the central canal in the fourth ventricle, and syringomyelia involving mainly the cervical spinal cord. Cine-MR imaging indicated patency of the aqueduct and an absent CSF flow signal in the area of the cisterna magna, which indicated obstruction of the outlets of the fourth ventricle. Although results of radioisotope cisternography indicated failure of CSF absorption, neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy completely resolved all symptoms as well as the ventricular and spinal cord abnormalities evident on MR images. Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy is an important option for treating hydrocephalus in patients with fourth ventricle outlet obstruction.
Takaichi Suehiro, Takanori Inamura, Yoshihiro Natori, Masayuki Sasaki and Masashi Fukui
Masato Matsumoto, Masanori Sato, Masayuki Nakano, Yuji Endo, Youichi Watanabe, Tatsuya Sasaki, Kyouichi Suzuki and Namio Kodama
Object. The aim of this study was to assess whether aneurysm surgery can be performed in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms by using three-dimensional computerized tomography (3D-CT) angiography alone, without conventional catheter angiography.
Methods. In a previous study, 60 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured aneurysms were prospectively evaluated using both 3D-CT and conventional angiography, which resulted in a 100% accuracy for 3D-CT angiography in the diagnosis of ruptured aneurysms, and a 96% accuracy in the identification of associated unruptured aneurysms. The results led the authors to consider replacing conventional angiography with 3D-CT angiography for use in diagnosing ruptured aneurysms, and to perform surgery aided by 3D-CT angiography alone without conventional angiography. Based on the results, 100 consecutive patients with SAH who had undergone surgery in the acute stage based on 3D-CT angiography findings have been studied since December 1996. One hundred ruptured aneurysms, including 41 associated unruptured lesions, were detected using 3D-CT angiography. In seven of 100 ruptured aneurysms, which included four dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms, two basilar artery (BA) tip aneurysms, and one BA—superior cerebellar artery aneurysm, 3D-CT angiography was followed by conventional angiography to acquire diagnostic confirmation or information about the vein of Labbé, which was needed to guide the surgical approach for BA tip aneurysms. All of the ruptured aneurysms were confirmed at surgery and treated successfully. Ninety-three patients who underwent operation with the aid of 3D-CT angiography only had no complications related to the lack of information gathered by conventional angiography. The 3D-CT angiography studies provided the authors with the aneurysm location as well as surgically important information on the configuration of its sac and neck, the presence of calcification in the aneurysm wall, and its relationship to the adjacent vessels and bone structures.
Conclusions The authors believe that 3D-CT angiography can replace conventional angiography in the diagnosis of ruptured aneurysms and that surgery can be performed in almost all acutely ruptured aneurysms by using only 3D-CT angiography without conventional angiography.
Takanobu Kaido, Taisuke Otsuki, Akiyoshi Kakita, Kenji Sugai, Yoshiaki Saito, Takafumi Sakakibara, Akio Takahashi, Yuu Kaneko, Yuko Saito, Hitoshi Takahashi, Ryoko Honda, Eiji Nakagawa, Masayuki Sasaki and Masayuki Itoh
Some patients are not seizure free even after epileptogenic cortical resection. The authors recently described a case of frontal lobe epilepsy cured after the resection of periventricular white matter and striatum, in which dysplastic neurons were revealed. The authors attempted to confirm similar cases.
They reviewed the records of 8 children with frontal lobe epilepsy who had daily (7) or monthly (1) seizures and underwent resections including deep brain structures.
Five patients underwent multiple resections. Neuroimaging of the deep structures showed the transmantle sign in 3 patients, ictal hyperperfusion in 6, reduced iomazenil uptake in 2, and spike dipole clustering in 6. All patients became seizure free postoperatively. Focal cortical dysplasia of various types was diagnosed in all patients. Dysmorphic neurons were found in the cortex and subcortical white matter of 5 patients. The striatum was verified in 3 patients in whom dysmorphic neurons were scattered. In the periventricular white matter, prominent astrocytosis was evident in all cases.
Pathological abnormalities such as dysmorphic neurons and astrocytosis in deep brain structures would play a key role in epileptogenesis.
Tomohiro Kawaguchi, Shinjitsu Nishimura, Masayuki Kanamori, Hiroki Takazawa, Shunsuke Omodaka, Kenya Sato, Noriko Maeda, Yoko Yokoyama, Hiroshi Midorikawa, Tatsuya Sasaki and Michiharu Nishijima
The difference in the hemodynamics of wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms is not well understood. The authors investigated the hemodynamic similarities and dissimilarities in ruptured and thin-walled unruptured aneurysm blebs.
Magnetic resonance imaging–based fluid dynamics analysis was used to calculate WSS and OSI, and hemodynamic and intraoperative findings were compared. The authors also compared ruptured and unruptured thin-walled blebs for the magnitude of WSS and OSI.
Intraoperatively, 13 ruptured and 139 thin-walled unruptured aneurysm blebs were identified. Twelve of the ruptured (92.3%) and 124 of the unruptured blebs (89.2%) manifested low WSS and high OSI. The degree of WSS was significantly lower in ruptured (0.49 ± 0.12 Pa) than in unruptured (0.64 ± 0.15 Pa; p < 0.01) blebs.
Ruptured and unruptured blebs shared a distinctive pattern of low WSS and high OSI. The degree of WSS at the rupture site was significantly lower than in the unruptured thin-walled blebs.
Naoki Ikegaya, Masaki Iwasaki, Yuu Kaneko, Takanobu Kaido, Yuiko Kimura, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Noriko Sumitomo, Takashi Saito, Eiji Nakagawa, Kenji Sugai, Masayuki Sasaki, Akio Takahashi and Taisuke Otsuki
Cognitive risk associated with insular cortex resection is not well understood. The authors reviewed cognitive and developmental outcomes in pediatric patients who underwent resection of the epileptogenic zone involving the insula.
A review was conducted of 15 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery involving the insular cortex for focal cortical dysplasia, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The median age at surgery was 5.6 years (range 0.3–13.6 years). Developmental/intelligence quotient (DQ/IQ) scores were evaluated before surgery, within 4 months after surgery, and at 12 months or more after surgery. Repeated measures multivariate ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects on outcomes of the within-subject factor (time) and between-subject factors (resection side, anterior insular resection, seizure control, and antiepileptic drug [AED] reduction).
The mean preoperative DQ/IQ score was 60.7 ± 22.8. Left-side resection and anterior insular resection were performed in 9 patients each. Favorable seizure control (International League Against Epilepsy class 1–3) was achieved in 8 patients. Postoperative motor deficits were observed in 9 patients (permanent in 6, transient in 3). Within-subject changes in DQ/IQ were not significantly affected by insular resection (p = 0.13). Postoperative changes in DQ/IQ were not significantly affected by surgical side, anterior insular resection, AED reduction, or seizure outcome. Only verbal function showed no significant changes before and after surgery and no significant effects of within-subject factors.
Resection involving the insula in children with impaired development or intelligence can be performed without significant reduction in DQ/IQ, but carries the risk of postoperative motor deficits.