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Masakazu Miyajima, Hiroaki Kazui, Etsuro Mori and Masatsune Ishikawa

OBJECTIVE

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is treated with cerebrospinal fluid shunting, and implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is the current standard treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of VPSs and lumboperitoneal shunts (LPSs) for patients with iNPH.

METHODS

The authors conducted a prospective multicenter study of LPS use for patients with iNPH. Eighty-three patients with iNPH (age 60 to 85 years) who presented with ventriculomegaly and high-convexity and medial subarachnoid space tightness on MR images were recruited from 20 neurological or neurosurgical centers in Japan between March 1, 2010, and October 19, 2011. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 1 year after surgery, and the secondary outcome included scores on the iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS). A previously conducted VPS cohort study with the same inclusion criteria and primary and secondary end points was used as a historical control.

RESULTS

The proportion of patients who achieved a favorable outcome (i.e., improvement of at least 1 point in their mRS score) was 63% (95% CI 51%–73%) and was comparable to values reported with VPS implantation (69%, 95% CI 59%–78%). Using the iNPHGS, the 1-year improvement rate was 75% (95% CI 64%–84%) and was comparable to the rate found in the VPS study (77%, 95% CI 68%–84%). The proportion of patients experiencing serious adverse events (SAEs) and non-SAEs did not differ significantly between the groups at 1 year after surgery (SAEs: 19 [22%] of 87 LPS patients vs 15 [15%] of 100 VPS patients, p = 0.226; non-SAEs: 24 [27.6%] LPS patients vs 20 [20%] VPS patients, p = 0.223). However, shunt revisions were more common in LPS-treated patients than in VPS-treated patients (6 [7%] vs 1 [1%]).

CONCLUSIONS

The efficacy and safety rates for LPSs with programmable valves are comparable to those for VPSs for the treatment of patients with iNPH. Despite the relatively high shunt failure rate, an LPS can be the treatment of choice because of its minimal invasiveness and avoidance of brain injury.

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Yuji Kinuta, Mieko Kimura, Yoshinori Itokawa, Masatsune Ishikawa and Haruhiko Kikuchi

✓ Xanthine oxidase activity in the rat brain was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of uric acid. Cerebral ischemia was produced by a four-vessel occlusion method. In the control rat, the enzyme activity was 0.87 ± 0.13 nmol/gm wet weight/min at 25°C (mean ± standard deviation), of which 92.4% was associated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent dehydrogenase form and only 7.6% with the oxygen-dependent superoxide-producing oxidase form. However, the ratio of the latter form increased to 43.7% after 30 minutes of global ischemia, despite the total xanthine oxidase activity remaining the same. Thus, it was revealed that uric acid can be synthesized in the rat brain and that cerebral ischemia induced the conversion of xanthine oxidase from an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to an oxygen-dependent superoxide-producing oxidase. Although the xanthine oxidase pathway has been proposed as a source of oxygen-derived free radicals in various ischemic organs other than brain, the results of the present study suggest the involvement of the oxygen free radicals generated from this pathway in the pathogenesis of the ischemic injury of the rat brain.

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Yuji Kinuta, Haruhiko Kikuchi, Masatsune Ishikawa, Mieko Kimura and Yoshinori Itokawa

✓ To verify whether lipid peroxidation is associated with focal cerebral ischemia, a unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion was carried out in rats. The concentrations of various endogenous antioxidants in the ischemic center were measured, including α-tocopherol and ubiquinones as lipid-soluble antioxidants and ascorbate as a water-soluble antioxidant. At 30 minutes after ischemia, α-tocopherol decreased to 79% of baseline, reduced ubiquinone-9 to 73%, ubiquinone-10 to 66%, and reduced ascorbate to 76%. Six hours after ischemia, α-tocopherol decreased to 63% and reached a plateau, whereas reduced ubiquinones and reduced ascorbate declined further to 16% and 10%, respectively, 12 hours after ischemia and then reached plateau levels. These results suggest functional and durational differences between antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in this ischemic model. Although the reciprocal increase in oxidized ubiquinones during ischemia was not observed, that of oxidized ascorbate was noted. The complementary antioxidant system between cytoplasmic and membranous components, the combination α-tocopherol/ascorbate, was estimated from the calculated consumption ratio of these antioxidants on the basis that the loss of these reduced antioxidants is due to neutralization of free radicals. This system is suggested to play an important role in the early ischemic period. Urate also increased during ischemia. The possible involvement of the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system in initiating free radical reactions in cerebral ischemia is also discussed.

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Tsuyoshi Ohta, Masanori Gomi, Hisayuki Oowaki and Masatsune Ishikawa

The authors present a case of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with fluctuations in symptoms following embolization. Superselective injection of 33% N-butyl cyanoacrylate into the feeding vessel resulted in the complete occlusion of the fistula with traversal of the nidus. The subsequent venous congestion was progressive and treatable with anti-thrombin therapy. Extended medication with dual antiplatelet therapy was required because dose reduction to aspirin monotherapy worsened symptoms. In this case, it took > 2 months for the patient's symptoms to stabilize. The duration of progressive venous thrombosis after embolization of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is not well known, nor is the most adequate treatment. Although it is presumed that prevention of venous thrombosis is best achieved with anticoagulation, dual antiplatelet therapy can be a substitute for patients with poor compliance.

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Nobutake Sadamasa, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Yasushi Takagi, Takuya Moriwaki, Yoshifumi Kawanabe, Masatsune Ishikawa and Nobuo Hashimoto

Object

Cerebral aneurysm is a major cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the mechanisms of its development remain unclear. Mechanical stretch has been reported to induce vascular smooth-muscle cell apoptosis via endothelin B receptors (ETBRs). The objectives of this study were to clarify the expression and localization of ETBR in cerebral aneurysms and to examine the effect of ETBR blockage on the development of experimental cerebral aneurysms.

Methods

Seventy-two rats underwent a cerebral aneurysm induction procedure and were divided into four groups according to the duration of postoperative study periods. Expression of ETBR was confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. The authors also studied the effect of K-8794, an oral selective antagonist of ETBR, to see whether it would influence the formation of cerebral aneurysms.

Two weeks after the aneurysm induction procedure, ETBR was rarely detected in anterior cerebral artery–olfactory artery bifurcations, but it was weakly expressed in experimental cerebral aneurysms at 1 month after the procedure, and markedly expressed at 3 months. The administration of K-8794 for 1 month after the procedure significantly reduced the number of advanced aneurysms and the number of apoptotic smooth-muscle cells.

Conclusions

These results suggest that ETBR might play a significant role in the progression of cerebral aneurysms and have the potential to improve prevention and treatment of cerebral aneurysms.

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Koreaki Mori, Fuji Takeuchi, Masatsune Ishikawa, Hajime Handa, Mitsuo Toyama and Tarumi Yamaki

✓ Four cases with the association of occlusive arteriopathy and brain tumor are presented. A clinical analysis of these cases and cases reported in the literature revealed that occlusive arteriopathy at the base of the brain was often associated with a slowly growing basal tumor in children. Possible causes of occlusive arteriopathy in these cases were compression of the circle of Willis by a slowly growing basal tumor, secondary arterial occlusive changes by radiation therapy for a basal tumor, or vasculopathy associated with neurocutaneous syndrome. Symptoms of sudden onset or episodic nature suggest the presence of occlusive arteriopathy rather than the mass effect of a tumor. Cerebral angiography is mandatory whenever computerized tomography (CT), performed to rule out recurrence of a basal tumor, shows an ischemic lesion with low-density areas without any evidence of mass effect of the tumor. Cerebral angiography is also necessary when a basal tumor is suspected in children, particularly in cases associated with neurocutaneous syndrome and a basal tumor. Care should be taken not to scarify the abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain at the time of operation, because it is considered to be functioning as collateral circulation. The potential hazards of radiotherapy to radiation-induced occlusive changes of the circle of Willis must be considered in treating a benign basal brain tumor in children. Even in adults, repeated large doses of irradiation could cause occlusive arteriopathy.

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Shigeki Yamada, Masatsune Ishikawa, Kazuo Yamamoto, Tadashi Ino, Toru Kimura, Shotai Kobayashi and Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study Group

OBJECT

The present study aimed to investigate aneurysm locations and treatments for ruptured cerebral aneurysms associated with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by using comprehensive data from the Japanese Stroke DataBank.

METHODS

Among 101,165 patients with acute stroke registered between 2000 and 2013, 4693 patients (1482 men, 3211 women) were registered as having had an SAH caused by a ruptured saccular aneurysm. Of them, 1448 patients (438 men and 1010 women; mean age 61.9 ± 13.4 years) who were confirmed to have or not have coexisting acute hydrocephalus and sNPH were included for statistical analyses. Locations of the ruptured aneurysms were subcategorized into 1 of the following 4 groups: middle cerebral artery (MCA; n = 354), anterior communicating artery and anterior cerebral artery (ACA; n = 496), internal carotid artery (ICA; n = 402), and posterior circulation (n = 130). Locations of 66 of the ruptured aneurysms were unknown/unrecorded. Treatments included craniotomy and clipping alone in 1073 patients, endovascular coil embolization alone in 285 patients, and a combination of coiling and clipping in 17 patients. The age-adjusted and multivariate odds ratios from logistic regression analyses were calculated after stratification using the Fisher CT scale to investigate the effects of the hematoma volume of SAH.

RESULTS

Acute hydrocephalus was confirmed in 593 patients, and 521 patients developed sNPH. Patients with a ruptured ACA aneurysm had twice the risk for sNPH over those with a ruptured MCA aneurysm. Those with an ACA aneurysm with Fisher Grade 3 SAH had a 9-fold-higher risk for sNPH than those with an MCA aneurysm with Fisher Grade 1 or 2 SAH. Patients with a ruptured posterior circulation aneurysm did not have any significant risk for sNPH. Clipping of the ruptured aneurysm resulted in twice the risk for sNPH over coil embolization alone.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with low-grade SAH caused by a ruptured MCA aneurysm had a low risk for the development of sNPH. In contrast, patients with high-grade SAH caused by a ruptured ACA aneurysm had a higher risk for sNPH. Endovascular coiling might confer a lower risk of developing sNPH than microsurgical clipping.

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Toshiki Yamasaki, Hajime Handa, Junkoh Yamashita, Jonathan T. Paine, Yuzuru Tashiro, Akira Uno, Masatsune Ishikawa and Reinin Asato

✓The authors review 30 documented cases of intracranial and orbital cavernous angiomas treated at their institution between 1965 and 1984. The diagnosis was based on computerized tomography (CT) or surgery; three patients were treated in the pre-CT era (1965 to 1976) and 27 since the advent of CT. The number of cases diagnosed preoperatively markedly increased after the introduction of CT, and 22 cases were verified histopathologically at surgery. Six cases were in children (aged 2 months to 17 years) and 24 in adults (aged 19 to 73 years). There was no significant sex difference (male:female ratio was 14:16). Nineteen lesions were intraparenchymal, five were intraventricular, three were in the middle fossa, two were intraorbital, and one originated from the tentorium. Symptoms varied according to the site of the lesion; hemorrhage occurred in 11 cases. Calcifications were seen on CT scans in all cases, but on plain skull films in only two. Angiography revealed hypovascular masses in all cases excluding those with lesions in the middle fossa; in two cases, tumor stain could be detected only with prolonged-injection angiography. Radionuclide brain scanning showed a dense hot area in eight of 19 patients. Recent experience has shown that magnetic resonance imaging clarified anatomic relationships that were obscure on CT. The overall outcome was favorable except for one patient who died in the postoperative period. The clinical results in this series are summarized and some diagnostic and therapeutic problems are discussed.

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Hiroki Toda, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Takashi Hanakawa, Hidemoto Saiki, Sadayuki Matsumoto, Ryosuke Okumura, Masatsune Ishikawa, Hidenao Fukuyama and Nobuo Hashimoto

Object

Accurate localization of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for proper placement of the electrodes in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for patients with advanced Parkinson disease. The authors evaluated the accuracy of our modified composite targeting method and the value of using high-field MR imaging for targeting the STN.

Methods

Thirteen patients with advanced Parkinson disease underwent bilateral STN DBS based on 3-T MR imaging, and 13 patients underwent surgery based on 1.5-T MR imaging. By sequentially referring to the postmammillary commissure, the red nucleus, the mammillothalamic tract, and the STN, the modified composite targeting method determined the stereotactic coordinates for targeting the STN. The accuracy and efficacy of the composite targeting method and 3-T MR imaging were evaluated by using the intraoperative microelectrode recording, the postoperative imaging study, and the postoperative clinical improvement.

Results

The landmark structures for targeting the STN were visualized clearly with 3-T MR imaging. The mean (± SD) path length through the STN of the central track was 4.9 ± 1.1 mm in the 3-T group and 3.1 ± 2.0 mm in the 1.5-T group (p < 0.001). Twenty-one (81%) of 26 electrodes were placed in the central track in the 3-T group, whereas 8 (31%) of 26 electrodes were placed in the central track in the 1.5-T group (p = 0.006). The rest of the electrodes were placed in the noncentral optimum track for alleviating parkinsonian motor symptoms. The mean Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor part score during off period was reduced by 53% in the 3-T group and by 41% in the 1.5-T group (p = 0.14). The mean reductions of levodopa equivalent daily doses were 48.6% in the 3-T group and 43.7% in the 1.5-T group (p = 0.61).

Conclusions

The use of the modified composite targeting method referring to the multiple landmarks with 3-T MR imaging offers reliable and clinically effective target for STN DBS surgery.

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Shigeki Yamada, Teruo Kimura, Naoto Jingami, Masamichi Atsuchi, Osamu Hirai, Takahiko Tokuda, Masakazu Miyajima, Hiroaki Kazui, Etsuro Mori, Masatsune Ishikawa and the SINPHONI-2 Investigators

OBJECTIVE

The study aim was to assess the influence of presurgical clinical symptom severity and disease duration on outcomes of shunt surgery in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The authors also evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid tap test as a predictor of improvements following shunt surgery.

METHODS

Eighty-three patients (45 men and 38 women, mean age 76.4 years) underwent lumboperitoneal shunt surgery, and outcomes were evaluated until 12 months following surgery. Risks for poor quality of life (Score 3 or 4 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and severe gait disturbance were evaluated at 3 and 12 months following shunt surgery, and the tap test was also conducted. Age-adjusted and multivariate relative risks were calculated using Cox proportional-hazards regression.

RESULTS

Of 83 patients with iNPH, 45 (54%) improved by 1 point on the mRS and 6 patients (7%) improved by ≥ 2 points at 3 months following surgery. At 12 months after surgery, 39 patients (47%) improved by 1 point on the mRS and 13 patients (16%) improved by ≥ 2 points. On the gait domain of the iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS), 36 patients (43%) improved by 1 point and 13 patients (16%) improved by ≥ 2 points at 3 months following surgery. Additionally, 32 patients (38%) improved by 1 point and 14 patients (17%) by ≥ 2 points at 12 months following surgery. In contrast, 3 patients (4%) and 2 patients (2%) had worse symptoms according to the mRS or the gait domain of the iNPHGS, respectively, at 3 months following surgery, and 5 patients (6%) and 3 patients (4%) had worse mRS scores and gait domain scores, respectively, at 12 months after surgery. Patients with severe preoperative mRS scores had a 4.7 times higher multivariate relative risk (RR) for severe mRS scores at 12 months following surgery. Moreover, patients with severe gait disturbance prior to shunt surgery had a 46.5 times greater multivariate RR for severe gait disturbance at the 12-month follow-up. Patients without improved gait following the tap test had multivariate RRs for unimproved gait disturbance of 7.54 and 11.2 at 3 and 12 months following surgery, respectively. Disease duration from onset to shunt surgery was not significantly associated with postoperative symptom severity or unimproved symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with iNPH should receive treatment before their symptoms become severe in order to achieve an improved quality of life. However, the progression of symptoms varies between patients so specific timeframes are not meaningful. The authors also found that tap test scores accurately predicted shunt efficacy. Therefore, indications for shunt surgery should be carefully assessed in each patient with iNPH, considering the relative risks and benefits for that person, including healthy life expectancy.