✓ Thermosensitive liposomes are microscopic vesicles that can contain drugs and release them effectively in response to hyperthermia. To deliver an antitumor drug specifically to brain tumor, the authors used thermosensitive liposomes containing cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) in conjunction with localized brain heating. The authors then investigated the antitumor effect on rat malignant glioma. Rous sarcoma virus—induced malignant glioma cells were transplanted into the brains of Fisher rats. Ten days after tumor inoculation, the rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: control, free CDDP, hyperthermia, free CDDP + hyperthermia, liposomes containing CDDP (CDDP—liposome), and CDDP—liposome + hyperthermia. Liposomes containing CDDP or free CDDP were injected via the tail vein. Brain tumor heating was administered by means of a radiofrequency antenna designed at our institute. The rats treated with CDDP—liposome + hyperthermia had the longest survival time and the tumor CDDP level of this group was the highest when compared to the other groups. Histopathological examination showed that tumor cells were necrotized but surrounding normal brain tissue remained undamaged. On the basis of these findings we suggest that the combination of thermosensitive liposome and localized hyperthermia may better focus antitumor drugs to the tumor, providing a significantly greater antitumor effect.
Kenichi Kakinuma, Ryuichi Tanaka, Hideaki Takahashi, Masato Watanabe, Tadashi Nakagawa, and Mizuo Kuroki
Daisuke Sakai, Jordy Schol, Akihiko Hiyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Masahiro Tanaka, Masato Sato, and Masahiko Watanabe
The objectives of this study were to apply the simultaneous translation on two rods (ST2R) maneuver involving rods contoured with a convexity at the desired thoracic kyphosis (TK) apex level and to assess the effects on the ability to support triplanar deformity corrections, including TK apex improvement, in patients with hypokyphotic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).
Using retrospective analysis, the authors examined the digital records that included 2- to 4-week, 1-year, and 2-year postoperative radiographic follow-up data of female hypokyphotic (TK < 20°) AIS patients (Lenke type 1–3) treated with ST2R. The authors assessed the corrections of triplanar deformities by examining the main Cobb angle, TK, rib hump, apical vertebral rotation, Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire scores, and TK apex translocation. In order to better grasp the potential of ST2R, the outcomes were compared with those of a historical matched case-control cohort treated with a standard rod rotation (RR) maneuver.
Data were analyzed for 25 AIS patients treated with ST2R and 27 patients treated with RR. The ST2R group had significant improvements in the main Cobb angle and TK, reduction in the rib hump size at each time point, and a final correction rate of 72%. ST2R treatment significantly increased the kyphosis apex by an average of 2.2 levels. The correction rate was higher at each time point in the ST2R group than in the RR group. ST2R engendered favorable TK corrections, although the differences were nonsignificant, at 2 years compared with the RR group (p = 0.056). The TK apex location was significantly improved in the ST2R cohort (p < 0.001). At the 1-month follow-up, hypokyphosis was resolved in 92% of the ST2R cohort compared with 30% of the RR cohort.
Resolving hypokyphotic AIS remains challenging. The ST2R technique supported significant triplanar corrections, including TK apex translocation and restoration of hypokyphosis in most patients. Comparisons with the RR cohort require caution because of differences in the implant profile. However, ST2R significantly improved the coronal and sagittal corrections. It also allowed for distribution of correctional forces over two rod implants instead of one, which should decrease the risk of screw pullout and rod flattening. It is hoped that the description here of commercially available reducers used with the authors’ surgical technique will encourage other clinicians to consider using the ST2R technique.
Daisuke Sakai, Masato Tanaka, Jun Takahashi, Yuki Taniguchi, Jordy Schol, Akihiko Hiyama, Haruo Misawa, Shugo Kuraishi, Hiroki Oba, Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, So Kato, Ryo Sugawara, Masato Sato, Masahiko Watanabe, and Katsushi Takeshita
For instrumented correction surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), surgeons are increasingly switching from titanium (Ti) alloy rods to stiffer cobalt-chromium (CoCr) rods. The authors conducted the first multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate whether these materials affect the outcomes in terms of spine correction and quality of life (QOL). This trial was registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry on September 3, 2012, under the identifier UMIN000008838 (level of evidence 1).
Female AIS patients (Lenke types 1–3, patient age 10–19 years) were recruited at 5 Japanese institutions and randomized into two cohorts: 6.0-mm-diameter Ti rods were placed in one group, and 6.0-mm-diameter CoCr rods were placed in the other. Patients were followed up at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months with radiographic examination to quantify the sagittal and coronal correction (Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis, rib hump, and apical vertebral rotation). Patients completed questionnaires (Scoliosis Research Society–22r, 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and Scoliosis Japanese Questionnaire–27) at 6 and 12 months to assess QOL.
A total of 69 AIS patients were randomized to the demographically similar Ti (n = 37) or CoCr (n = 32) cohort. Four adverse events were recorded, two in each cohort, but these were not related to the rod material. At the final follow-up, both Ti and CoCr cohorts showed significant improvement in spinal correction, including the Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis, and rib hump size. The correction rates were 68.4% and 67.1% for the Ti and CoCr cohorts, respectively. No parameters differed significantly between the cohorts at any time. Survey data showed improved but similar outcomes in both cohorts.
Both treatments (Ti and CoCr) produced similar results and were efficient in engendering clinically significant spine corrections.
Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000008838 (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry)