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  • Author or Editor: Masaomi Koyanagi x
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Hitoshi Fukuda, Akira Handa, Masaomi Koyanagi, Benjamin Lo and Sen Yamagata

OBJECTIVE

Although endovascular therapy is favored for acutely ruptured intracranial aneurysms, hematological factors associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may predispose to procedure-related ischemic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an elevated level of plasma D-dimer, a parameter of hypercoagulation in patients with acute SAH, is correlated with increased incidence of thromboembolic events during endovascular coiling of ruptured aneurysms.

METHODS

The authors analyzed data from 103 cases of acutely ruptured aneurysms (in 103 patients) treated with endovascular coil embolization at a single institution. Factors associated with elevated D-dimer level on admission were identified. The authors also evaluated whether D-dimer elevation was independently correlated with increased incidence of perioperative thromboembolic events.

RESULTS

An elevated D-dimer concentration (≥ 1.0 μg/ml) on admission was observed in 70 (68.0%) of 103 patients. Increasing age (p < 0.001, Student t-test) and poor initial neurological grade representing World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade IV or V (p = 0.0018, chi-square test) were significantly associated with D-dimer elevation. Symptomatic thromboembolic events occurred in 11 cases (10.7%). Elevated D-dimer levels on admission (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10–1.62, p = 0.0029) independently carried a higher risk of thromboembolic events after adjustment for potential angiographic confounders, including wide neck of the aneurysm and large aneurysm size.

CONCLUSIONS

Elevated D-dimer levels on admission of patients with acute SAH were significantly associated with increased incidence of thromboembolic events during endovascular coiling of ruptured aneurysms.

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Masaomi Koyanagi, Hitoshi Fukuda, Benjamin Lo, Minami Uezato, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, Nobutake Sadamasa, Akira Handa, Masaki Chin and Sen Yamagata

OBJECTIVE

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is an important complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although intrathecal milrinone injection via lumbar catheter to prevent DCI has been previously reported to be safe and feasible, its effectiveness remains unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether intrathecal milrinone injection treatment after aSAH significantly reduced the incidence of DCI.

METHODS

The prospectively maintained aSAH database was used to identify patients treated between January 2010 and December 2015. The cohort included 274 patients, with group assignment based on treatment with intrathecal milrinone injection or not. A propensity score model was generated for each patient group, incorporating relevant patient variables.

RESULTS

After propensity score matching, 99 patients treated with intrathecal milrinone injection and 99 without treatment were matched on the basis of similarities in their demographic and clinical characteristics. There were significantly fewer DCI events (4% vs 14%, p = 0.024) in patients treated with intrathecal milrinone injection compared with those treated without it. However, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to their 90-day functional outcomes (46% vs 36%, p = 0.31). The likelihood of chronic secondary hydrocephalus, meningitis, and congestive heart failure as complications of intrathecal milrinone injection therapy was also similar between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS

In propensity score–matched groups, the intrathecal administration of milrinone via lumbar catheter showed significant reduction of DCI following aSAH, without an associated increase in complications.

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Masaomi Koyanagi, Akira Ishii, Hirotoshi Imamura, Tetsu Satow, Kazumichi Yoshida, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Takayuki Kikuchi, Yohei Takenobu, Mitsushige Ando, Jun C. Takahashi, Ichiro Nakahara, Nobuyuki Sakai and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Long-term follow-up results of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) by means of coil embolization remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of rupture, retreatment, stroke, and death in patients with coiled UIAs who were followed for up to 20 years at multiple stroke centers.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed data from cases in which patients underwent coil embolization between 1995 and 2004 at 4 stroke centers. In collecting the late (≥ 1 year) follow-up data, postal questionnaires were used to assess whether patients had experienced rupture or retreatment of a coiled aneurysm or any stroke or had died.

RESULTS

Overall, 184 patients with 188 UIAs were included. The median follow-up period was 12 years (interquartile range 11–13 years, maximum 20 years). A total of 152 UIAs (81%) were followed for more than 10 years. The incidence of rupture was 2 in 2122 aneurysm-years (annual rupture rate 0.09%). Nine of the 188 patients with coiled UIAs (4.8%) underwent additional treatment. In 5 of these 9 cases, the first retreatment was performed more than 5 years after the initial treatment. Large aneurysms were significantly more likely to require retreatment. Nine strokes occurred over the 2122 aneurysm-years. Seventeen patients died in this cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates a low risk of rupture of coiled UIAs with long-term follow-up periods of up to 20 years. This suggests that coiling of UIAs could prevent rupture for a long period of time. However, large aneurysms might need to be followed for a longer time.

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Masaomi Koyanagi, Hitoshi Fukuda, Masaaki Saiki, Yoshihito Tsuji, Benjamin Lo, Toshinari Kawasaki, Yoshihiko Ioroi, Ryu Fukumitsu, Ryota Ishibashi, Masashi Oda, Osamu Narumi, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) may arise after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) as CSF resorptive mechanisms are disrupted. Using propensity score analysis, the authors aimed to investigate which treatment modality, surgical clipping or endovascular treatment, is superior in reducing rates of SDHC after aSAH.

METHODS

The authors’ multicenter SAH database, comprising 3 stroke centers affiliated with Kyoto University, Japan, was used to identify patients treated between January 2009 and July 2016. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to characterize risk factors for SDHC after aSAH. A propensity score model was generated for both treatment groups, incorporating relevant patient covariates to detect any superiority for prevention of SDHC after aSAH.

RESULTS

A total of 566 patients were enrolled in this study. SDHC developed in 127 patients (22%). On multivariate analysis, age older than 53 years, the presence of intraventricular hematoma, and surgical clipping as opposed to endovascular coiling were independently associated with SDHC after aSAH. After propensity score matching, 136 patients treated with surgical clipping and 136 with endovascular treatment were matched. Propensity score–matched cohorts exhibited a significantly lower incidence of SDHC after endovascular treatment than after surgical clipping (16% vs 30%, p = 0.009; OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.2). SDHC was independently associated with poor neurological outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 3–6) at discharge (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6–7.3; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

SDHC after aSAH occurred significantly more frequently in patients who underwent surgical clipping. Strategies for treatment of ruptured aneurysms should be used to mitigate SDHC and minimize poor outcomes.