✓ Chondromas arising from the dura mater are rare intracranial tumors. The authors present a case of intracranial giant chondroma originating from the dura mater of the convexity. Neuroimaging and surgical findings are described. The diagnostic clues are discussed and similar cases from the literature are reviewed.
Case report and review of the literature
Masaki Nakayama, Tetsuya Nagayama, Hirofumi Hirano, Tatsuki Oyoshi, and Jun-ichi Kuratsu
Akira Watanabe, Ryoji Ishii, Masaki Kamada, Yasuo Suzuki, Kazuhiro Hirano, and Hironari Okamura
✓ A case is reported of aqueductal stenosis caused by an abnormal draining vein and demonstrated by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt relieved the patient's progressive headaches.
Tetsuya Nagayama, Masatomo Kaji, Hirofumi Hirano, Masaki Niiro, and Jun-ichi Kuratsu
✓ The authors report on a 52-year-old woman with a cerebellar hemangioblastoma who presented with a 2-year history of intractable hiccups. Computerized tomography scans and magnetic resonance images revealed a cerebellar hemangioblastoma with compression of the brainstem at the level of the medulla oblongata. The patient has been free of hiccups and has been neurologically intact since the day after total removal of the tumor. A review of the literature on medullary lesions presenting with intractable hiccups is provided.
Kazuya Motomura, Lushun Chalise, Fumiharu Ohka, Kosuke Aoki, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Masaki Hirano, Tomohide Nishikawa, Junya Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, and Atsushi Natsume
Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) are often observed within eloquent regions, which indicates that tumor resection in these areas carries a potential risk for neurological disturbances, such as motor deficit, language disorder, and/or neurocognitive impairments. Some patients with frontal tumors exhibit severe impairments of neurocognitive function, including working memory and spatial awareness, after tumor removal. The aim of this study was to investigate neurocognitive and functional outcomes of frontal LGGs in both the dominant and nondominant hemispheres after awake brain mapping.
Data from 50 consecutive patients with diffuse frontal LGGs in the dominant and nondominant hemispheres who underwent awake brain surgery between December 2012 and September 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The goal was to map neurocognitive functions such as working memory by using working memory tasks, including digit span testing and N-back tasks.
Due to awake language mapping, the frontal aslant tract was frequently identified as a functional boundary in patients with left superior frontal gyrus tumors (76.5%). Furthermore, functional boundaries were identified while evaluating verbal and spatial working memory function by stimulating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using the digit span and visual N-back tasks in patients with right superior frontal gyrus tumors (7.1%). Comparing the preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological assessments from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised (WMS-R), significant improvement following awake surgery was observed in mean Perceptual Organization (Z = −2.09, p = 0.04) in WAIS-III scores. Postoperative mean WMS-R scores for Visual Memory (Z = −2.12, p = 0.03) and Delayed Recall (Z = −1.98, p = 0.04) were significantly improved compared with preoperative values for every test after awake surgery. No significant deterioration was noted with regard to neurocognitive functions in a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. In the postoperative course, early transient speech and motor disturbances were observed in 30.0% and 28.0% of patients, respectively. In contrast, late permanent speech and motor disturbances were observed in 0% and 4.0%, respectively.
It is noteworthy that no significant postoperative deterioration was identified compared with preoperative status in a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The results demonstrated that awake functional mapping enabled favorable neurocognitive and functional outcomes after surgery in patients with diffuse frontal LGGs.
Kazuya Motomura, Lushun Chalise, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Junya Yamaguchi, Tomohide Nishikawa, Fumiharu Ohka, Kosuke Aoki, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Masaki Hirano, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, and Atsushi Natsume
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) combined with perampanel (PER) therapy for intraoperative seizure treatment to determine whether a combination of LEV and PER can aid in the prevention of intraoperative intractable seizures during awake surgery.
The authors performed a retrospective cohort study in 78 consecutive patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation mapping. To prevent intraoperative seizures, 50 patients were treated with the antiepileptic drug LEV only (LEV group) from January 2017 to January 2019, while the remaining 28 patients were treated with LEV plus PER (LEV + PER group) between March 2019 and January 2020. LEV (1000–3000 mg) and/or PER (2–4 mg) were administered before the surgery.
Preoperative seizures with International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) class II–VI occurred in 44% of the patients in the LEV group and in 35.7% of patients in the LEV + PER group, with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.319). Total intraoperative seizures occurred in 18 patients (36.0%) in the LEV therapy group and in 2 patients (7.1%) in the LEV + PER group (p = 0.009). Of these, there were no patients (0%) with intractable seizures in the LEV + PER group. Regarding factors that influence intraoperative seizures in glioma patients during awake brain surgery, multivariate logistic regression models revealed that the occurrence of intraoperative seizures was significantly related to the involvement of motor-related regions (positive vs negative, HR 6.98, 95% CI 1.71–28.56, p = 0.007), preoperative seizure (ILAE class II–VI vs ILAE class I, HR 4.44, 95% CI 1.22–16.11, p = 0.024), and LEV + PER group (positive vs negative, HR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.44, p = 0.005). Treatment-related adverse effects were rare and mild, including sleepiness, tiredness, and dizziness in both treatment groups.
This study demonstrates that LEV + PER therapy is significantly associated with a lower risk of intraoperative seizures compared with LEV therapy alone in patients with glioma during awake brain mapping. These findings will help neurosurgeons conduct safe and reliable awake surgeries and reduce the rate of intraoperative intractable seizures during such procedures.
Hiroyuki Shimizu, Kazuya Motomura, Fumiharu Ohka, Kosuke Aoki, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Masaki Hirano, Lushun Chalise, Tomohide Nishikawa, Junya Yamaguchi, Jun Yoshida, Atsushi Natsume, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi
The current study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and toxicities of patients with intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs).
This study retrospectively included 110 consecutive patients (70 patients in the germinomatous group and 40 patients in the nongerminomatous GCT [NGGCT] groups) receiving surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed primary intracranial GCTs. In the authors’ protocol, patients with GCTs were further divided into the following four groups: the germinomatous group and the NGGCT groups (mature teratoma, intermediate prognosis, or poor prognosis).
The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates of the patients in the germinomatous group were significantly higher than those in the NGGCT group (p < 0.001). The 5-, 10-, and 20-year OS rates in the germinomatous group were 97.1%, 95.7%, and 93.2%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 11.0 years. On the contrary, the 5-, 10-, and 20-year OS rates in the NGGCT group were 67.3%, 63.4%, and 55.4%, respectively. The 5-, 10-, and 20-year PFS rates were 91.4%, 86.6%, and 86.6%, respectively, in the germinomatous group, whereas those of the NGGCT group were approximately 67.4%, 60.2%, and 53.5%, respectively. Based on the four types of classification in our study, the 5-, 10-, and 20-year OS rates in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis group were 78.9%, 71.8%, and 53.8%, respectively. On the contrary, the 3- and 5-year OS rates in the NGGCT poor prognosis group were 42.9% and 34.3%, respectively. Moreover, toxicities with the treatment of intracranial GCTs were found to be tolerable in the present study population. The multivariate survival models for OS in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups demonstrated that only the alpha-fetoprotein status was significantly associated with worsened OS (HR 3.88, 95% CI 1.29–11.66; p = 0.02).
The authors found that platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy result in favorable survival outcomes in patients with germinomatous GCTs. Clinical outcomes were still unfavorable in the NGGCT intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups; therefore, a new protocol that increases the survival rate of patients belonging in both groups should be considered.