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Azusa Shimizu, Yuzo Komuro, Masakazu Miyajima and Hajime Arai

An otherwise healthy, developmentally normal 3-week-old male infant presented with complex multisuture craniosynostosis involving the metopic suture and bilateral coronal sutures with frontal prominence and hypotelorism. Frontal craniectomy and bilateral frontoorbital advancement remodeling were performed at the age of 5 months. The postoperative course was uneventful. The child's development was normal up to 8 months after the operation. His father and grandfather had similar specific deformities of the cranium, but no anomaly of the extremities was found, and conversation suggested that their intelligence was normal, excluding the possibility of syndromic craniosynostosis. A DNA analysis revealed large-scale copy number polymorphism of chromosome 4 in the patient and his family, which may include the phenotype of the cranium. Neither FGFR mutation nor absence of a TWIST1 mutation in the sequence from 291 to 1087, which includes DNA binding, Helix1, Loop, and Helix2, was identified. The patient apparently had a rare case of familial nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. The authors plan further genomic analysis of this family and long-term observation of the craniofacial deformity of this patient.

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James P. McAllister II and Janet M. Miller

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Masakazu Miyajima, Hiroaki Kazui, Etsuro Mori and Masatsune Ishikawa

OBJECTIVE

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is treated with cerebrospinal fluid shunting, and implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is the current standard treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of VPSs and lumboperitoneal shunts (LPSs) for patients with iNPH.

METHODS

The authors conducted a prospective multicenter study of LPS use for patients with iNPH. Eighty-three patients with iNPH (age 60 to 85 years) who presented with ventriculomegaly and high-convexity and medial subarachnoid space tightness on MR images were recruited from 20 neurological or neurosurgical centers in Japan between March 1, 2010, and October 19, 2011. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 1 year after surgery, and the secondary outcome included scores on the iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS). A previously conducted VPS cohort study with the same inclusion criteria and primary and secondary end points was used as a historical control.

RESULTS

The proportion of patients who achieved a favorable outcome (i.e., improvement of at least 1 point in their mRS score) was 63% (95% CI 51%–73%) and was comparable to values reported with VPS implantation (69%, 95% CI 59%–78%). Using the iNPHGS, the 1-year improvement rate was 75% (95% CI 64%–84%) and was comparable to the rate found in the VPS study (77%, 95% CI 68%–84%). The proportion of patients experiencing serious adverse events (SAEs) and non-SAEs did not differ significantly between the groups at 1 year after surgery (SAEs: 19 [22%] of 87 LPS patients vs 15 [15%] of 100 VPS patients, p = 0.226; non-SAEs: 24 [27.6%] LPS patients vs 20 [20%] VPS patients, p = 0.223). However, shunt revisions were more common in LPS-treated patients than in VPS-treated patients (6 [7%] vs 1 [1%]).

CONCLUSIONS

The efficacy and safety rates for LPSs with programmable valves are comparable to those for VPSs for the treatment of patients with iNPH. Despite the relatively high shunt failure rate, an LPS can be the treatment of choice because of its minimal invasiveness and avoidance of brain injury.

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Xi Qing Shen, Masakazu Miyajima, Ikuko Ogino and Hajime Arai

Object

Aquaporin (AQP) water channels play an important role in water movement in the central nervous system. The authors used an animal model to examine the relationship between AQP4 expression and spontaneously arrested hydrocephalus.

Methods

Congenitally hydrocephalic H-Tx (hH-Tx) rats and nonhydrocephalic H-Tx (nH-Tx) rats were used in the study. Brain tissue sections were obtained from animals in both groups at 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of age. Sections were immunostained using AQP4 antibodies, and AQP4 expression was assessed.

In the nH-Tx group, no AQP4 expression was seen in 1-day-old rats, and AQP4 expression was found in astrocytes around capillaries of the cerebral cortex and in ependymal cells lining the ventricles in 1-week-old rats. In the 4- and 8-week-old nH-Tx animals, AQP4 expression was seen in subpial zones of the cortex, on foot processes of pericapillary astrocytes, and in periventricular regions. A marked increase in cerebral cortical expression of AQP4 was observed at 8 weeks in the hH-Tx rats but not in the nH-Tx rats.

Conclusions

The authors hypothesize that the differences in cerebral AQP4 expression in the 1-day-old and 1-week-old nH-Tx rats compared with the 4- and 8-week-old nH-Tx rats may be related to the fact that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation of newborns and infants differs from that of adults. It is also possible that the increased expression of AQP4 seen in the 8-week-old hH-Tx animals was related to the development of alternative pathways of CSF circulation, which also may occur in instances of spontaneously arrested hydrocephalus.

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Yasuomi Nonaka, Masakazu Miyajima, Ikuko Ogino, Madoka Nakajima and Hajime Arai

Object

Some cases of compensatory hydrocephalus have been reported in which cognitive deficiency progresses despite the absence of progressive ventricular dilation. In this study, the differentially expressed genes in compensated hydrocephalic H-Tx rat cortices were determined. A molecular mechanism that induces neuronal death in the cerebral cortex of compensated hydrocephalus is proposed.

Methods

The cerebral cortices of 8-week-old H-Tx rats with spontaneously arrested hydrocephalus (hH-Tx) and nonhydrocephalic H-Tx (nH-Tx) control rats were subjected to cDNA microarray analysis followed by canonical pathway analysis.

Results

In the hH-Tx rats, many genes in the amyloidal processing pathway showed altered expression, including Akt3 and p38 MAPK. These latter genes are involved in tau protein phosphorylation, and their increased expression in hydrocephalus was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Immunohistological and immunoblot analysis revealed elevated phosphorylated tau expression in the cerebral cortex neurons of the hH-Tx rats.

Conclusions

The accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in the cerebral cortex may be one of the mechanisms by which later cognitive dysfunction develops in patients with compensated hydrocephalus. More work needs to be done to determine if the accumulation of phosphorylated tau in the cortex can help predict which patients may decompensate thus requiring more aggressive treatment for compensated hydrocephalus.

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Madoka Nakajima, Kuniaki Bando, Masakazu Miyajima and Hajime Arai

The authors have developed a minimally invasive lumboperitoneal shunt placement procedure conducted after administration of a local anesthetic. The procedure involves placing a guide wire and a peel-away sheath under fluoroscopic and CT guidance. Between June 2004 and August 2006, 40 patients (21 men and 19 women; mean age 72.5 years [range 33–86 years]) underwent surgery. A Codman Hakim programmable valve system (82–3844, Codman & Shurtleff, Inc.) was used for the procedure. The mean operating time was 53 minutes, and 7 patients (17.5%) developed shunt dysfunction complications. These complications comprised an infected shunt valve in 2 patients, postoperative lower-limb pain in 1 patient, and shunt obstruction (caused by debris and hemorrhage) at the ventral and lumbar ends in 2 patients each. This procedure is less invasive than conventional lumboperitoneal shunt insertion and could be performed as an outpatient surgery for treatment of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus.

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Masakazu Miyajima, Hajime Arai, Osamu Okuda, Makoto Hishii, Hajime Nakanishi and Kiyoshi Sato

Object. In this study the authors identify and investigate two new classifications of suprasellar arachnoid cysts.

Methods. The authors used computerized tomography cisternography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and neuroendoscopy to investigate nine cases of suprasellar arachnoid cysts. A communicating cyst with early filling and early clearance of a radioopaque tracer was found in seven of nine cases; a communicating cyst with delayed filling and delayed clearance of the tracer was observed in one case; and a noncommunicating cyst was observed in the other. The MR findings indicated a variation in the position of the basilar artery (BA) bifurcation in relation to the ventral surface of the midbrain. A distance existed between the BA bifurcation and the ventral surface of the midbrain in a communicating cyst with early filling, whereas the BA bifurcation was posteriorly displaced in a communicating cyst with delayed filling and also in a noncommunicating cyst, leaving little space between the bifurcation and the ventral surface of the midbrain. Endoscopic observation revealed, in the case of communicating cysts with early filling and early clearance of tracer, that the BA bifurcation is located inside the cyst with no overlying membrane, whereas in a noncommunicating cyst, the BA and its branches can be observed through the transparent membrane of the lesion.

Conclusions. The authors postulate two different types of suprasellar arachnoid cysts: a noncommunicating intraarachnoid cyst of the diencephalic membrane of Liliequist and a communicating cyst that is a cystic dilation of the interpeduncular cistern.

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Madoka Nakajima, Hidenori Sugano, Yasushi Iimura, Takuma Higo, Hajime Nakanishi, Kazuaki Shimoji, Kostadin Karagiozov, Masakazu Miyajima and Hajime Arai

A girl aged 2 years 10 months suddenly went into a deep coma and demonstrated left hemiplegia. At birth, she had exhibited a left-sided facial port-wine stain typical of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and involving the V1 and V2 distributions of the trigeminal nerve. Computed tomography showed a right thalamic hemorrhage with acute hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging with Gd enhancement 8 months before the hemorrhage had shown a patent superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and deep venous system. Magnetic resonance imaging and MR angiography studies 2 months before the hemorrhage had revealed obstruction of the SSS and right internal cerebral vein (ICV). Given that a digital subtraction angiography study obtained after the hemorrhage did not show the SSS or right ICV, the authors assumed that impaired drainage was present in the deep venous system at that stage. The authors speculated that the patient's venous drainage pattern underwent compensatory changes because of the occluded SSS and deep venous collectors, shifting outflow through other cortical venous channels to nonoccluded dural sinuses. Sudden congestion (nearly total to total obstruction) of the ICV may have caused the thalamic hemorrhage in this case, which is the first reported instance of pediatric SWS with intracerebral hemorrhage and no other vascular lesion. Findings suggested that the appearance of major venous sinus occlusion in a child with SWS could be a warning sign of hemorrhage.

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Hiroshi Kageyama, Masakazu Miyajima, Ikuko Ogino, Madoka Nakajima, Kazuaki Shimoji, Ryoko Fukai, Noriko Miyake, Kenichi Nishiyama, Naomichi Matsumoto and Hajime Arai

OBJECT

The authors’ goal in this paper is to provide the first clinical, radiological, and genetic studies of panventriculomegaly (PaVM) defined by a wide foramen of Magendie and large cisterna magna.

METHODS

Clinical and brain imaging data from 28 PaVM patients (including 10 patients from 5 families) were retrospectively studied. Five children were included. In adult patients, the age at onset was 56.0 ± 16.7 years. Tetraventricular dilation, aqueductal opening with flow void on T2-weighted images, and a wide foramen of Magendie and large cisterna magna (wide cerebrospinal fluid space at the fourth ventricle outlet) were essential MRI findings for PaVM diagnosis. 3D fast asymmetrical spin echo sequences were used for visualization of cistern membranes. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse examination was performed to analyze cerebrospinal fluid movement. Copy number variations were determined using high-resolution microarray and were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with breakpoint sequencing.

RESULTS

Adult patients showed gait disturbance, urinary dysfunction, and cognitive dysfunction. Five infant patients exhibited macrocranium. Patients were divided into 2 subcategories, those with or without downward bulging third ventricular floors and membranous structures in the prepontine cistern. Patients with bulging floors were successfully treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Genetic analysis revealed a deletion in DNAH14 that encodes a dynein heavy chain protein associated with motile cilia function, and which co-segregated with patients in a family without a downward bulging third ventricular floor.

CONCLUSIONS

Panventriculomegaly with a wide foramen of Magendie and a large cisterna magna may belong to a subtype of congenital hydrocephalus with familial accumulation, younger age at onset, and symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus. In addition, a family with PaVM has a gene mutation associated with dysfunction of motile cilia.

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Shigeki Yamada, Teruo Kimura, Naoto Jingami, Masamichi Atsuchi, Osamu Hirai, Takahiko Tokuda, Masakazu Miyajima, Hiroaki Kazui, Etsuro Mori, Masatsune Ishikawa and the SINPHONI-2 Investigators

OBJECTIVE

The study aim was to assess the influence of presurgical clinical symptom severity and disease duration on outcomes of shunt surgery in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The authors also evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid tap test as a predictor of improvements following shunt surgery.

METHODS

Eighty-three patients (45 men and 38 women, mean age 76.4 years) underwent lumboperitoneal shunt surgery, and outcomes were evaluated until 12 months following surgery. Risks for poor quality of life (Score 3 or 4 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and severe gait disturbance were evaluated at 3 and 12 months following shunt surgery, and the tap test was also conducted. Age-adjusted and multivariate relative risks were calculated using Cox proportional-hazards regression.

RESULTS

Of 83 patients with iNPH, 45 (54%) improved by 1 point on the mRS and 6 patients (7%) improved by ≥ 2 points at 3 months following surgery. At 12 months after surgery, 39 patients (47%) improved by 1 point on the mRS and 13 patients (16%) improved by ≥ 2 points. On the gait domain of the iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS), 36 patients (43%) improved by 1 point and 13 patients (16%) improved by ≥ 2 points at 3 months following surgery. Additionally, 32 patients (38%) improved by 1 point and 14 patients (17%) by ≥ 2 points at 12 months following surgery. In contrast, 3 patients (4%) and 2 patients (2%) had worse symptoms according to the mRS or the gait domain of the iNPHGS, respectively, at 3 months following surgery, and 5 patients (6%) and 3 patients (4%) had worse mRS scores and gait domain scores, respectively, at 12 months after surgery. Patients with severe preoperative mRS scores had a 4.7 times higher multivariate relative risk (RR) for severe mRS scores at 12 months following surgery. Moreover, patients with severe gait disturbance prior to shunt surgery had a 46.5 times greater multivariate RR for severe gait disturbance at the 12-month follow-up. Patients without improved gait following the tap test had multivariate RRs for unimproved gait disturbance of 7.54 and 11.2 at 3 and 12 months following surgery, respectively. Disease duration from onset to shunt surgery was not significantly associated with postoperative symptom severity or unimproved symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with iNPH should receive treatment before their symptoms become severe in order to achieve an improved quality of life. However, the progression of symptoms varies between patients so specific timeframes are not meaningful. The authors also found that tap test scores accurately predicted shunt efficacy. Therefore, indications for shunt surgery should be carefully assessed in each patient with iNPH, considering the relative risks and benefits for that person, including healthy life expectancy.