Tatsuro Aoyama, Muneyoshi Yasuda, Hitoshi Yamahata, Mikinobu Takeuchi, Masahiro Joko, Kazuhiro Hongo and Masakazu Takayasu
The object of this study was to evaluate the radiographic characteristics of C-2 using multiplanar CT measurements for anchor screw placement in patients with C-1 assimilation (C1A). Insertion of a C-2 pedicle screw in the setting of C1A is relatively difficult and technically demanding, and there has been no report about the optimal sizes of the pedicles and laminae of C-2 for screw placement in C1A.
An institutional database was searched for all patients who had undergone cervical CT scanning and cervical spine surgery between April 2006 and December 2012. Two neurosurgeons reviewed the CT scans from 462 patients who met these criteria, looking for C1A and other anomalies of the craniocervical junction such as high-riding vertebral artery (VA), basilar invagination, and VA anomaly. The routine axial images were reloaded on a workstation, and reconstruction CT images were used to measure parameters: the minimum width of bilateral pedicles and laminae and the length of bilateral laminae of the atlas.
Seven patients with C1A were identified, and 14 sex-matched patients without C1A were randomly selected from the same database as a control group. The mean minimum pedicle width was 5.21 mm in patients with C1A and 7.17 mm in those without. The mean minimum laminae width was 5.29 mm in patients with C1A and 6.53 mm in controls. The mean minimum pedicle and laminae widths were statistically significantly smaller in the patients with C1A (p < 0.05).
In patients with C1A, the C-2 bony structures are significantly smaller than normal, making C-2 pedicle screw or translaminar screw placement more difficult.
Taiki Isaji, Muneyoshi Yasuda, Reo Kawaguchi, Masahiro Aoyama, Aichi Niwa, Takahiro Nakura, Naoki Matsuo and Masakazu Takayasu
The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and the vertebral artery (VA) often exhibit anatomical variations at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). An example of this is the PICA originating extradurally from the V3 segment of the VA. To date, some cadaveric investigations have been reported, but the incidence and relationship of this variation to the VA and the atlas as observed on clinical imaging have not been discussed. This study evaluated the prevalence of PICAs originating from the V3 on CT scanning. Other variations of the atlas and VA were also analyzed.
CT images from a series of 153 patients who underwent 3D CT angiography (CTA) were analyzed, and variations of the PICA, VA, and atlas were investigated.
A total of 142 patients (284 sides) were analyzed; 11 patients (7.2%) were excluded due to poor image quality. The most common VA variation was the PICA originating from V3 (9.5% of 284 sides), which was more frequently observed on the nondominant VA than the dominant VA (22.5% vs 6.25%, p = 0.0005). A VA with a PICA end was identified in 4 sides (1.4%), which is the same incidence as observed in the persistent first intersegmental VA (1.4%). VA fenestration was only found in 1 side (0.35%). Regarding the atlas, ponticulus posticus was observed in 24 sides (8.5%). There was no relationship between the incidence of ponticulus posticus and the variations of the VA.
A PICA originating from V3 was the most common VA variation at the CVJ and was more common on the nondominant VA. Three-dimensional CTA is useful for the evaluation of this variance. Surgeons should be mindful of this variation during operations.