Hyperhidrosis is caused by a sympathetic dysfunction of the central or peripheral nervous system. Intramedullary spinal cord lesions can be a cause of hyperhidrosis. The authors report a rare case of intramedullary thoracic spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting as hyperhidrosis. This 16-year-old boy presented with abnormal sweating on the right side of the neck, chest, and the right arm that had been occurring for 6 years. Neurological examination revealed mild motor weakness of the right lower extremity and slightly decreased sensation in the left lower extremity. Hyperhidrosis was observed in the right C3–T8 dermatomes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary tumor at the right side of the spinal cord at the T2–3 level. The tumor showed partial enhancement after Gd administration. The patient underwent removal of the tumor via hemilaminectomy of T2–3. Only subtotal resection was achieved because the margins of the tumor were unclear. Histopathological examination revealed ganglioglioma. Hyperhidrosis gradually improved after surgery. Hyperhidrosis is a rare clinical manifestation of intramedullary spinal cord tumors, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The location of the tumor origin, around the right gray matter of the lateral spinal cord, may account for the hyperhidrosis as the initial symptom in this patient. Physicians should examine the spinal cord using MRI studies when a patient has hyperhidrosis with some motor or sensory symptoms of the extremities.
Tomohiro Murakami, Izumi Koyanagi, Takahisa Kaneko, Akihiro Yoneta, Yoshiko Keira, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Tadashi Hasegawa and Nobuhiro Mikuni
Masahiko Wanibuchi, Takanori Fukushima, John T. McElveen Jr. and Allan H. Friedman
Hearing preservation remains a challenging problem in vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. The ability to preserve hearing in patients with large tumors is subject to particular difficulty. In this study, the authors focus on hearing preservation in patients harboring large VSs.
A total of 344 consecutive patients underwent surgical removal of VSs over the past 9 years. Of these 344 cases, 195 VSs were > 20 mm in maximum cisternal diameter. Of the 195 cases, hearing preservation surgery was attempted for 54 patients who had a Class A, B, C, or D preoperative hearing level; that is, a pure tone average ≤ 60 dB and speech discrimination score ≥ 50% according to the Sanna/Fukushima classification. The tumors were classified as moderately large (21–30 mm based on the largest extrameatal diameter), large (31–40 mm), and giant (≥ 41 mm) according to the international criteria. The authors categorized patients with Class A, B, C, D, or E hearing (pure tone average ≤ 80 dB and speech discrimination score ≥ 40%) as having preserved hearing postoperatively.
Forty-one tumors (75.9%) were totally removed and 13 (24.1%) had near-total removal. Of the 54 patients, 29 maintained their hearing postoperatively; the overall hearing preservation rate was 53.7%. Analysis based on the preoperative hearing level showed that hearing was preserved in 14 (77.8%) of 18 cases for Class A; in 8 (47.1%) of 17 cases for Class B; in 4 (57.1%) of 7 cases for Class C; and in 3 (25.0%) of 12 cases for Class D. In addition, according to the analysis based on the tumor size, 20 (52.6%) of 38 patients with moderately large tumors retained their hearing, as did 5 (50.0%) of 10 patients with large tumors and 4 (66.7%) of 6 patients with giant tumors. Complications included 2 cases of bacterial meningitis that were cured by intravenous injection of antibiotics, 3 cases of subcutaneous CSF leakage that resolved without any surgical repair, and 1 case of temporary abducent nerve palsy. There were no deaths in this series.
The results indicate that successful hearing preservation surgery in large VSs is possible with meticulous technique and attention to adhesions between the tumor and the cochlear nerves.
Shunya Ohtaki, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Masanori Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Shouhei Noshiro, Yukinori Akiyama, Takeshi Mikami, Nobuhiro Mikuni, Jeffery D. Kocsis and Osamu Honmou
Glioma is a major class of brain tumors, and glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and malignant type. The nature of tumor invasion makes surgical removal difficult, which results in remote recurrence. The present study focused on glioma invasion and investigated the expression of actin, alpha cardiac muscle 1 (ACTC1), which is 1 of 6 actin families implicated in cell motility.
mRNA expression of ACTC1 expression was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 47 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded glioma tissues that were graded according to WHO criteria: Grade I (n = 4); Grade II (n = 12); Grade III (n = 6); and Grade IV (n = 25). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The relationships between ACTC1 expression and clinical features such as radiological findings at the time of diagnosis and recurrence, patient age, Karnofsky Performance Scale status (KPS), and the MIB-1 index were evaluated.
The incidence of ACTC1 expression as a qualitative assessment gradually increased according to WHO grade. The hazard ratio for the median overall survival (mOS) of the patients with ACTC1-positive high-grade gliomas as compared with the ACTC1-negative group was 2.96 (95% CI, 1.03–8.56). The mOS was 6.28 years in the ACTC1-negative group and 1.26 years in the positive group (p = 0.037). In GBM patients, the hazard ratio for mOS in the ACTC1-positive GBMs as compared with the ACTC1-negative group was 2.86 (95% CI 0.97–8.45). mOS was 3.20 years for patients with ACTC1-negative GBMs and 1.08 years for patients with ACTC1-positive GBMs (p = 0.048). By the radiological findings, 42.9% of ACTC1-positive GBM patients demonstrated invasion toward the contralateral cerebral hemisphere at the time of diagnosis, although no invasion was observed in ACTC1-negative GBM patients (p = 0.013). The recurrence rate of GBM was 87.5% in the ACTC1-positive group; in contrast, none of the ACTC1-negative patients demonstrated distant recurrence (0.007). No remarkable relationship was demonstrated among ACTC1 expression and patient age, KPS, and the MIB-1 index.
ACTC1 may serve as a novel independent prognostic and invasion marker in GBM.
Kei Miyata, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Kunihiko Maekawa, Takeshi Mikami, Yukinori Akiyama, Satoshi Iihoshi, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Nobuhiro Mikuni, Shuji Uemura, Katsutoshi Tanno, Eichi Narimatsu and Yasufumi Asai
In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), a randomized controlled trial revealed that outcomes did not significantly improve after therapeutic hypothermia (TH) or normothermia (TN). However, avoiding pyrexia, which is often associated with intracranial disorders, might improve clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to compare neurological outcomes among patients with moderate and severe TBI after therapeutic temperature modulation (TTM) in the absence of other interventions.
Data from 1091 patients were obtained from the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank Project 2009, a cohort observational study. Patients with cardiac arrest, those with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 and dilated fixed pupils, and those whose cause of death was injury to another area of the body were excluded, leaving 687 patients aged 16 years or older in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the TTM group underwent TN (213 patients) or TH (82 patients), and the control group (392 patients) did not receive TTM. The primary end point for this study was the rate of poor outcome at hospital discharge, and the secondary end point was in-hospital death. Out of the 208 total items in the database, 29 variables that could potentially affect outcome were matched using the propensity score (PS) method in order to reduce selection bias and balance the baseline characteristics.
From each group, 141 patients were extracted using the PS-matching process. Among the patients in the TTM group, 29 had undergone TH and 112 had undergone TN. In a log-rank test using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, no significant differences in patient outcome or death were observed between the 2 groups (poor outcome, p = 0.83; death, p = 0.18). A Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis established the HR for poor outcome and mortality at 1.03 (95% CI 0.78–1.36, p = 0.83) and 1.34 (95% CI 0.87–2.07, p = 0.18), respectively.
There was no clear improvement in neurological outcomes after TTM in patients with moderate or severe TBI. To elucidate the role of TTM in patients with these injuries, a prospective study is needed with long-term follow-up using specific target temperatures.
Masahito Nakazaki, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Takahiro Namioka, Ai Namioka, Rie Onodera, Junpei Suzuki, Yuichi Sasaki, Hiroshi Nagahama, Takeshi Mikami, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Jeffery D. Kocsis and Osamu Honmou
Reperfusion therapy with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke. However, hemorrhagic complications can result. Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduces stroke volume and improves behavioral function in experimental stroke models. One suggested therapeutic mechanism is inhibition of vascular endothelial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine whether MSCs suppress hemorrhagic events after rtPA therapy in the acute phase of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats.
After induction of tMCAO, 4 groups were studied: 1) normal saline [NS]+vehicle, 2) rtPA+vehicle, 3) NS+MSCs, and 4) rtPA+MSCs. The incidence rate of intracerebral hemorrhage, both hemorrhagic and ischemic volume, and behavioral performance were examined. Matrix metalloproteinase–9 (MMP-9) levels in the brain were assessed with zymography. Quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was performed to assess hemodynamic change in the ischemic lesion.
The MSC-treated groups (Groups 3 and 4) experienced a greater reduction in the incidence rate of intracerebral hemorrhage and hemorrhagic volume 1 day after tMCAO even if rtPA was received. The application of rtPA enhanced activation of MMP-9, but MSCs inhibited MMP-9 activation. Behavioral testing indicated that both MSC-infused groups had greater improvement than non-MSC groups had, but rtPA+MSCs provided greater improvement than MSCs alone. The rCBF ratio of rtPA groups (Groups 2 and 4) was similar at 2 hours after reperfusion of tMCAO, but both were greater than that in non-rtPA groups.
Infused MSCs may inhibit endothelial dysfunction to suppress hemorrhagic events and facilitate functional outcome. Combined therapy of infused MSCs after rtPA therapy facilitated early behavioral recovery.