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Ryoma Morigaki, Masaaki Uno, Atsuhiko Suzue, and Shinji Nagahiro

✓ In this paper the authors describe two patients with recurrent hemiparesis and limb shaking that gradually progressed to hemichorea. Cerebral angiography confirmed severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (95%) contra-lateral to the hemichorea. The cerebral blood flow, assessed using N-isopropyl-p-(iodine-123) iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), disclosed markedly decreased vascular reserves in both patients. After carotid endarterectomy was performed, the hemichorea gradually subsided and SPECT confirmed increased cerebral perfusion. The results in these cases indicate that surgical revascularization is effective for hemichorea due to cerebral ischemia with reduced vascular reserve.

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Kimihiko Yokosuka, Masaaki Uno, Kohei Matsumura, Hiroki Takai, Hirotaka Hagino, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Hiroyuki Toi, and Shunji Matsubara

OBJECT

Endoscopic surgery was performed for acute or subacute subdural hematoma (SDH), and its effectiveness and safety in elderly patients were evaluated.

METHODS

Between September 2007 and November 2013, endoscopic surgery was performed in 11 elderly patients with acute SDH (8 patients) and subacute SDH (3 patients). The criteria for surgery were as follows: 1) the presence of clinical symptoms; 2) age older than 70 years; 3) no brain injury (intracerebral hematoma, brain contusion); 4) absence of an enlarging SDH; and 5) no high risk of bleeding. Hematoma evacuation was performed with a 4-mm rigid endoscope with a 0° lens and a malleable irrigation suction cannula.

RESULTS

Endoscopic surgery was performed under local anesthesia. The mean age of the patients was 82.6 years (range 73–91 years). There were 5 female and 6 male patients. The mean preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 12, and 5 patients had been receiving antithrombotic drug therapy. The mean operation time was 85 minutes. Only 1 patient had rebleeding, and reoperation with the same technique was performed uneventfully in this individual. A total of 7 patients had a good recovery (modified Rankin Scale Score 0–2) at discharge.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic hematoma evacuation of acute and subacute SDH is a safe and effective method of clot removal that minimizes operative complications. This technique may be a less invasive method for treating elderly patients with acute and subacute SDHs.

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Masaaki Uno, Keiko T. Kitazato, Atsuhiko Suzue, Hiroyuki Itabe, Liu Hao, and Shinji Nagahiro

Object

Reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen mediate the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidation of LDL is inhibited by endogenous radical scavenging enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu-ZnSOD that catalyze dismutation of oxygen to H2O2. Low-molecular antioxidants such as uric acid regulate the inactivation that appears to be linked to an increase in peroxynitrite resulting in oxidized LDL (OxLDL) elevation. The authors evaluated whether a focal imbalance between pro- and antioxidant systems induces plaque vulnerability in patients with carotid artery (CA) stenosis.

Methods

Carotid artery plaques obtained in 35 patients who had undergone carotid endarterectomy were classified as vulnerable or stable based on histopathological findings. In vulnerable plaques, OxLDL, measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was significantly higher (p < 0.01) and SOD activity significantly lower than in stable plaques (p < 0.05). The plaque and plasma OxLDL levels were inversely correlated with plaque SOD activity (p < 0.01). The physiological uric acid level in all plaques was one fourth to one eighth of that in plasma and appeared to be unable to protect Cu-ZnSOD from degradation by H2O2. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased peroxynitrite and OxLDL in vulnerable plaques. There was a significant correlation between plaque and plasma OxLDL levels (p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Analysis of the results suggests that a focal imbalance between pro- and antioxidant defense systems in patients with CA plaques induces an increase in plaque OxLDL levels and consequent plaque instability, contributing to high levels of plasma OxLDL.

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Satoshi Hirai, Kenji Yagi, Keijiro Hara, Eiichiro Kanda, Shunji Matsubara, and Masaaki Uno

OBJECTIVE

Because of an aging society, the incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is increasing. This lesion is treated with simple burr hole irrigation, but one of the major issues is that CSDH frequently recurs. ABO blood type may be associated with a bleeding tendency and inflammation. However, its association with the recurrence of CSDH remains unknown. Therefore, the authors of the present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the association between ABO blood type and CSDH recurrence.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed symptomatic CSDHs in 425 cerebral hemispheres of 376 patients who had undergone surgical treatment with irrigation of the hematoma via burr holes at their institution from January 2011 to September 2019. Among these were 366 CSDHs in 320 patients whose ABO blood type had been determined and who were included in this study.

RESULTS

In the study, 307 patients with CSDHs in 350 hemispheres were followed up postoperatively until the disappearance of the CDSH or for at least 3 months. Recurrence of CSDH was observed in 37 patients (10.6%) after surgical treatment. Blood type A was found to be significantly associated with CSDH recurrence compared to non-A blood types: 24 of 153 CDSHs (15.7%) versus 13 of 197 CDSHs (6.6%) (p = 0.008). In the multivariable regression analysis, blood type A, in addition to thrombocytopenia, was a significant independent predictor of the recurrence of CSDH.

CONCLUSIONS

The study results showed that blood type A is an independent risk factor for the postoperative recurrence of CSDH and that careful follow-up in these patients may be needed.

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Satoshi Hirai, Kenji Yagi, Keijiro Hara, Eiichiro Kanda, Shunji Matsubara, and Masaaki Uno

OBJECTIVE

Because of an aging society, the incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is increasing. This lesion is treated with simple burr hole irrigation, but one of the major issues is that CSDH frequently recurs. ABO blood type may be associated with a bleeding tendency and inflammation. However, its association with the recurrence of CSDH remains unknown. Therefore, the authors of the present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the association between ABO blood type and CSDH recurrence.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed symptomatic CSDHs in 425 cerebral hemispheres of 376 patients who had undergone surgical treatment with irrigation of the hematoma via burr holes at their institution from January 2011 to September 2019. Among these were 366 CSDHs in 320 patients whose ABO blood type had been determined and who were included in this study.

RESULTS

In the study, 307 patients with CSDHs in 350 hemispheres were followed up postoperatively until the disappearance of the CDSH or for at least 3 months. Recurrence of CSDH was observed in 37 patients (10.6%) after surgical treatment. Blood type A was found to be significantly associated with CSDH recurrence compared to non-A blood types: 24 of 153 CDSHs (15.7%) versus 13 of 197 CDSHs (6.6%) (p = 0.008). In the multivariable regression analysis, blood type A, in addition to thrombocytopenia, was a significant independent predictor of the recurrence of CSDH.

CONCLUSIONS

The study results showed that blood type A is an independent risk factor for the postoperative recurrence of CSDH and that careful follow-up in these patients may be needed.

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Hiroyuki Toi, Keita Kinoshita, Satoshi Hirai, Hiroki Takai, Keijiro Hara, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Shunji Matsubara, Makoto Otani, Keiji Muramatsu, Shinya Matsuda, Kiyohide Fushimi, and Masaaki Uno

OBJECTIVE

Aging of the population may lead to epidemiological changes with respect to chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The objectives of this study were to elucidate the current epidemiology and changing trends of CSDH in Japan. The authors analyzed patient information based on reports using a Japanese administrative database associated with the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system.

METHODS

This study included patients with newly diagnosed CSDH who were treated in hospitals participating in the DPC system. The authors collected data from the administrative database on the following clinical and demographic characteristics: patient age, sex, and level of consciousness on admission; treatment procedure; and outcome at discharge.

RESULTS

A total of 63,358 patients with newly diagnosed CSDH and treated in 1750 DPC participation hospitals were included in this study. Analysis according to patient age showed that the most common age range for these patients was the 9th decade of life (in their 80s). More than half of patients 70 years old or older presented with some kind of disturbance of consciousness. Functional outcomes at discharge were good in 71.6% (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–2) of cases and poor in 28.4% (mRS score 3–6). The percentage of poor outcomes tended to be higher in elderly patients. Approximately 40% of patients 90 years old or older could not be discharged to home. The overall recurrence rate for CSDH was 13.1%.

CONCLUSIONS

This study shows a chronological change in the age distribution of CSDH among Japanese patients, which may be affecting the prognosis of this condition. In the aging population of contemporary Japan, patients in their 80s were affected more often than patients in other age categories, and approximately 30% of patients with CSDH required some help at discharge. CSDH thus may no longer have as good a prognosis as had been thought.

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Masafumi Hiramatsu, Ryota Ishibashi, Etsuji Suzuki, Yuko Miyazaki, Satoshi Murai, Hiroki Takai, Yuji Takasugi, Yoko Yamaoka, Kazuhiko Nishi, Yu Takahashi, Jun Haruma, Tomohito Hishikawa, Takao Yasuhara, Masaki Chin, Shunji Matsubara, Masaaki Uno, Koji Tokunaga, Kenji Sugiu, and Isao Date

OBJECTIVE

There have been no accurate surveillance data regarding the incidence rate of spinal arteriovenous shunts (SAVSs). Here, the authors investigate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of SAVSs.

METHODS

The authors conducted multicenter hospital-based surveillance as an inventory survey at 8 core hospitals in Okayama Prefecture between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2019. Consecutive patients who lived in Okayama and were diagnosed with SAVSs on angiographic studies were enrolled. The clinical characteristics and the incidence rates of each form of SAVS and the differences between SAVSs at different spinal levels were analyzed.

RESULTS

The authors identified a total of 45 patients with SAVSs, including 2 cases of spinal arteriovenous malformation, 5 cases of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF), 31 cases of spinal dural AVF (SDAVF), and 7 cases of spinal epidural AVF (SEAVF). The crude incidence rate was 0.234 per 100,000 person-years for all SAVSs including those at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) level. The incidence rate of SDAVF and SEAVF combined increased with advancing age in men only. In a comparative analysis between upper and lower spinal SDAVF/SEAVF, hemorrhage occurred in 7/14 cases (50%) at the CCJ/cervical level and in 0/24 cases (0%) at the thoracolumbar level (p = 0.0003). Venous congestion appeared in 1/14 cases (7%) at the CCJ/cervical level and in 23/24 cases (96%) at the thoracolumbar level (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors reported detailed incidence rates of SAVSs in Japan. There were some differences in clinical characteristics of SAVSs in the upper spinal levels and those in the lower spinal levels.