Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by the enlargement of capillaries, recurrent nosebleeds, and multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Although cerebral AVMs are traditionally considered to be congenital lesions, some reports have described de novo AVMs, which suggests that the authors believed them to be dynamic conditions. In this article, the authors describe the case of a 5-year-old boy with HHT in whom a de novo cerebral AVM was detected after a negative MRI result at 5 months. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a de novo AVM in a patient with HHT. In patients with a family history of HHT, de novo AVMs are possible, even when no lesions are detected at the first screening. Therefore, regular screenings need to be performed, and the family should be informed that AVMs could still develop despite normal MRI results.
Yusuke Shimoda, Toshiya Osanai, Naoki Nakayama, Satoshi Ushikoshi, Masaaki Hokari, Hideo Shichinohe, Takeo Abumiya, Ken Kazumata and Kiyohiro Houkin
Yasuhiro Chiba, Toyohiko Isu, Kyongsong Kim, Naotaka Iwamoto, Daijiro Morimoto, Kazuyoshi Yamazaki, Masaaki Hokari, Masanori Isobe and Mitsuo Kusano
Superior cluneal nerve (SCN) entrapment neuropathy (SCNEN) is a cause of low-back pain (LBP) that can be misdiagnosed as a lumbar spine disorder. The clinical features and etiology of LBP remain poorly understood. In this study, 5 patients with intermittent LBP due to SCNEN who had previously received conservative treatment underwent surgery. The findings are reported and the etiology of LBP is discussed to determine whether it is attributable to SCNEN.
Intermittent LBP is defined as a clinical condition in which pain is induced by standing or walking but is absent at rest. Between April 2012 and March 2013, 5 patients in this study who had intermittent LBP due to SCNEN underwent surgery. The patients included 3 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 66 years. The affected side was unilateral in 2 patients and bilateral in 3 (total sites, 8). The interval from symptom onset to treatment averaged 51.4 months; the mean postoperative follow-up period was 17.6 months. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the numerical rating scale (NRS) for LBP, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale, and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) preoperatively and at the last follow-up; these data were analyzed statistically.
None of the 5 patients reported LBP at rest. Intermittent LBP involving the iliac crest and buttocks was induced by standing or walking an average of 136 m. In 2 patients with unilateral involvement, LBP was improved only by SCN block. Surgeries were performed on 6 sites in 5 patients because the SCN block was only transiently effective. Patients’ SCNs penetrated the orifice of the thoracolumbar fascia. SCN kinking at the orifice was exacerbated at the lumbar-extension provocation posture, and radiating pain increased upon manual intraoperative compression of the SCN in this posture. After releasing the SCN surgically, disappearance of the pain was intraoperatively confirmed by manual compression of the SCN with the patients in the lumbar-extension posture. Surgery was effective in all 5 patients, and all clinical outcome scores indicated significant improvement (p < 0.05).
To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of patients with intermittent LBP due to SCNEN. Clinical and surgical evidence presented suggests that their LBP was exacerbated by lumbar extension and that symptom relief was obtained by SCN block or surgical release of the SCN entrapment. These results suggest that SCNEN should be considered as a causal factor in patients for whom walking elicits LBP.